1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Panicum L.
      1. Panicum porphyrrhizos Steud.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa to Botswana.

    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Robust annual or short-lived perennial; culms 50–200 cm. high, 2–4 mm. in diameter at the base, erect; nodes glabrous, not sharply demarcated, pale or dark, the pigment diffusing above and below the nodes.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades linear, 15–30 cm. long, 5–10 mm. wide, straight at the base, flat, glabrous, rarely sparsely hairy, acuminate.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle ovate to oblong, (20–)30–50 cm. long, much branched and spreading, the spikelets tending towards the extremeties of the branches and appressed to them.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets ovate, 3.5(–4) mm. long, pale, often tinged with purple, acuminate to cuspidate; lower glume broadly ovate, 1/4–1/3 the length of the spikelet, membranous, 1–3-nerved, cuff-like, clasping the base of the spikelet, acute to acuminate; upper glume ovate, as long as the spikelet, membranous, 7–9-nerved, acuminate; lower lemma similar to the upper glume, sterile, its palea poorly developed; upper lemma pale and glossy.
    Habitat
    Damp ground near swamps and rivers, in black or grey clay soils; 400–2250 m.
    Distribution
    K1 K4 K5 K6 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 U1 U2 W. Africa
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora Zambesiaca 10:3. 1989

    Habit
    Perennial with tough, robust culms 50–200 cm. high from a shortly rhizomatous or tufted base; the upper nodes not sharply demarcated, the pigment diffusing above and below.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf laminae 15–30 cm. long and 5–10 mm. wide, linear, flat, acuminate.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle (20)30–50 cm. long, ovate or oblong, moderately to much branched, the tertiary and sometimes the secondary branches appressed.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 3–3.5 mm. long, narrowly ovate, acuminate; inferior glume 1/4–1/3 the length of the spikelet, broadly ovate, 1–3-nerved; superior glume 7–9-nerved; inferior lemma similar to the superior glume, sterile, its palea poorly developed; superior lemma and palea pallid, glossy.
    [FWTA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

    Habit
    Caespitose perennial up to 1 m. high
    Ecology
    By ditches and on moist soils.
    [GB]
    Habit
    Annual, or perennial; short-lived. Culms erect; 50-200 cm long; 2-4 mm diam. Culm-nodes pallid, or brown; glabrous. Ligule a ciliate membrane. Leaf-blades parallel-sided; 15-30 cm long; 5-10 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface glabrous. Leaf-blade apex acuminate.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open; oblong, or ovate; (20-)30-50 cm long; with spikelets clustered towards branch tips. Primary panicle branches spreading. Spikelets appressed; solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; dorsally compressed; cuspidate, or acuminate; 3.5(-4) mm long; falling entire.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; dorsally compressed; cuspidate, or acuminate; 3.5(-4) mm long; falling entire.
    Glume
    Glumes dissimilar; reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume oblate; 0.25-0.33 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 1-3 -veined. Lower glume apex acute, or acuminate. Upper glume ovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 7-9 -veined. Upper glume apex acuminate.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret similar to upper glume; ovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; 7-9 -veined; acuminate. Fertile lemma oblong; dorsally compressed; 3 mm long; indurate; pallid; shiny; without keel. Lemma margins involute. Lemma apex obtuse. Palea involute; indurate.
    Distribution
    Africa: west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, and south.
    Reference
    Paniceae. FTEA.
    Diagnostic
    Pigment diffusing above and below nodes.

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Botswana, Cameroon, Chad, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Niger, Senegal, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Panicum porphyrrhizos Steud. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 72 (1853)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1989). Flora Zambesiaca 10(3): 1-231. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lebrun, J.P. (1973). Énumération des plantes vasculaires du Sénégal: 1-209. Maisons Alfort: Institut d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • F.T.A. 9: 712.
    • Syn. Pl. Glum. 1: 72 (1854)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1989). Flora Zambesiaca 10(3): 1-231. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Clayton in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3: 434 (1972).
    • D.M. Napper, Grasses of Tanganyika: 62 (1965).
    • K.W. Harker & D.M. Napper, An Illustrated Guide to the Grasses of Uganda p. 46 (1960).
    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Sudan 3: 504 (1956).
    • Eggeling, Ann. list grasses Ug.: 33 (1947).
    • Stapf in Flora of Tropical Africa 9: 712 (1920).
    • Steud., Syn. Pl. Glum. 1: 72 (1854).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0