1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Panicum L.
      1. Panicum subalbidum Kunth

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, W. Indian Ocean.

    [FZ]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora Zambesiaca 10:3. 1989

    Habit
    Robust annual or short-lived perennial with soft herbaceous culms 60–200 cm. high, erect or decumbent and rooting at the lower nodes, the upper nodes sharply demarcated.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf laminae 20–50 cm. long and 7–15 mm. wide, linear, flat, acute or acuminate.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle 20–50 cm. long, ovate or oblong, sparsely to moderately branched, the tertiary and sometimes the secondary branches appressed at maturity.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets (2.7)3–3.5 mm. long, narrowly ovate, acuminate; inferior glume 1/4–1/3 the length of the spikelet, broadly ovate, 1–3-nerved, obtuse or acute; superior glume 7–9-nerved; inferior lemma similar to the superior glume, sterile, its palea poorly developed or absent; superior lemma and palea pallid or dark, glossy.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Robust annual or short lived perennial; culms 60–200 cm. high, 5–10 mm. in diameter at the base, erect or decumbent, often rooting at the lower nodes, the lower leaf-sheaths papery, loose; nodes glabrous, sharply demarcated, usually dark, the pigment strictly confined to the node.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades linear, 20–50 cm. long, 7–15 mm. wide, cordate to straight at the base, flat, lax, glabrous or sparsely pilose, acuminate.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle ovate or oblong, 20–50 cm. long, sparsely to moderately branched, spreading, the spikelets evenly dispersed.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets ovate, 3–3.5 mm. long, acuminate; lower glume broadly ovate, 1/4–1/3 the length of the spikelet, membranous, 1–3-nerved, cuff-like, clasping the base of the spikelet, obtuse or acute; upper glume ovate, as long as the spikelet, membranous, 7–9-nerved, acuminate; lower lemma similar to the upper glume, sterile, its palea absent or poorly developed; upper lemma pale and glossy.
    Habitat
    Margins of rivers, lakes and swamps; 200–3400 m.
    Distribution
    K1 K3 K4 K5 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 U2 U4 throughout tropical Africa
    [FWTA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

    Habit
    0·6–2 m. high, with spongy culms
    Leaves
    Broad lush leaves
    Ecology
    Swamps.
    [GB]
    Habit
    Annual, or perennial; short-lived. Butt sheaths papery. Culms erect, or decumbent; 60-200 cm long; 5-10 mm diam.; without nodal roots, or rooting from lower nodes. Culm-nodes brown; glabrous. Ligule a ciliate membrane. Leaf-blade base simple, or cordate. Leaf-blades parallel-sided, or tapering towards tip; 20-50 cm long; 7-15 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface glabrous, or pilose. Leaf-blade apex acuminate.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open; oblong, or ovate; 20-50 cm long. Primary panicle branches spreading. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; dorsally compressed; acuminate; 3-3.5 mm long; falling entire.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; dorsally compressed; acuminate; 3-3.5 mm long; falling entire.
    Glume
    Glumes dissimilar; reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume oblate; 0.25-0.33 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 1-3 -veined. Lower glume apex obtuse, or acute. Upper glume ovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 7-9 -veined. Upper glume apex acuminate.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret similar to upper glume; ovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; 7-9 -veined; acuminate. Fertile lemma oblong; dorsally compressed; 2.5-3 mm long; indurate; pallid; shiny; without keel. Lemma margins involute. Lemma apex obtuse. Palea involute; indurate.
    Distribution
    Africa: west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, and western Indian ocean.
    Reference
    Paniceae. FTEA.
    Diagnostic
    Pigment confined to nodes.
    [GB]
    Habit
    Annual. Rhizomes short. Culms erect; robust; 120 cm long. Culm-internodes striate; distally glabrous. Leaf-sheaths striately veined; glabrous on surface. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades linear; 15-17 cm long; 6 mm wide. Leaf-blade margins scaberulous. Leaf-blade apex acuminate.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open; elliptic; loose; 25-30 cm long. Primary panicle branches ascending; 1 -nate; 7-8 cm long. Panicle branches scaberulous. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels 2-4 mm long; tip widened.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; laterally compressed; 3-3.5 mm long; falling entire.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; laterally compressed; 3-3.5 mm long; falling entire.
    Glume
    Glumes similar; reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma; recurved at apex and gaping. Lower glume ovate; clasping; 1-1.2 mm long; 0.33 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 3 -veined. Lower glume apex obtuse. Upper glume ovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 5-7 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins prominent. Upper glume surface asperulous. Upper glume apex cuspidate.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret similar to upper glume; lanceolate, or ovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; scaberulous; cuspidate. Fertile lemma lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 2 mm long; indurate; pallid; shiny; without keel. Lemma margins involute. Lemma apex acute. Palea involute; indurate.
    Distribution
    Africa: western Indian ocean.
    Reference
    Paniceae. Camus 2007.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cape Provinces, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Réunion, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Common Names

    English
    Elbow buffalo grass

    Panicum subalbidum Kunth appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Williamson [21], South Africa K000255491
    Bidgood, S. [5408], Tanzania K000190638
    Buchanan [267], South Africa K000255494
    Flanagan, H.G. [953], South Africa K000255495
    Buchanan, J. [107], South Africa K000255492
    Drège, South Africa K000255493

    First published in Révis. Gramin. 2: 397 (1831)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 2: 360-550. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1989). Flora Zambesiaca 10(3): 1-231. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lebrun, J.P. (1973). Énumération des plantes vasculaires du Sénégal: 1-209. Maisons Alfort: Institut d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Berhaut, Fl. Sén. ed. 2, 415.
    • Chev. Bot. 730
    • Rev. Gram. 2: 397, t. 112 (1831)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1989). Flora Zambesiaca 10(3): 1-231. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.
    • Hubbard, C.E. & Vaughan, R.E. (1940). Grasses of Mauritius and Rodriguez: 1-128. Crown Agents for the Colonies, London.
    • Robyns, W. (1934). Flore Agrostologique du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 2: 9-386. Goemaere, Bruxelles.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Clayton in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3: 434 (1972).
    • D.M. Napper, Grasses of Tanganyika: 62 (1965).
    • Robyns, Flore des Spermatophytes du Parc National Albert 3: 105 (1955).
    • Kunth, Rév. Gram. 2: 397 (1831).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/