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This species is accepted, and its native range is Macaronesia, Medit. to Pakistan.

[GB]
Morphology General Habit
Annual. Culms erect, or geniculately ascending; 20-100 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 2-8 mm long. Leaf-blades 5-15 cm long; 2-9 mm wide; glaucous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle; subtended by an inflated leaf-sheath; embraced at base by subtending leaf. Panicle spiciform; oblong; tapering below; 4-10 cm long; 1.5-2.5 cm wide. Primary panicle branches accrescent to a central axis; with evident branchlets on axis. Panicle axis with rounded ribs; scaberulous; bearing deciduous spikelet clusters. Spikelets subtended by an involucre. Fertile spikelets pedicelled, or sessile; 1 in the cluster; heteromorphic (smaller and sessile at base of panicle); on shorter pedicels than sterile. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 6 in the cluster. Involucre composed of imperfect spikelets; cuneate; 7-10 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; containing empty lemmas; elliptic, or cuneate (and deformed); 4-6 mm long; shorter than fertile; deciduous with the fertile. Companion sterile spikelet glumes chartaceous; winged on keels; acute. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas 1; enclosed by glumes; 2 mm long. Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; laterally compressed; 7-8 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
Sterile
Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; containing empty lemmas; elliptic, or cuneate (and deformed); 4-6 mm long; shorter than fertile; deciduous with the fertile. Companion sterile spikelet glumes chartaceous; winged on keels; acute. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas 1; enclosed by glumes; 2 mm long.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; laterally compressed; 7-8 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes similar; exceeding apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate; 7-8 mm long; 1 length of upper glume; chartaceous; 1-keeled; winged on keel; winged in the middle; 3 -veined. Lower glume apex setaceously attenuate. Upper glume ovate; 7-8 mm long; 2-3 length of adjacent fertile lemma; chartaceous; 1-keeled; winged on keel; winged in the middle; 3 -veined. Upper glume apex setaceously attenuate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Basal sterile florets similar; both vestigial. Fertile lemma ovate; 2.5-3.5 mm long; coriaceous; shiny; keeled; 5 -veined. Lemma surface glabrous, or pubescent (sparsely); hairy above. Lemma apex obtuse. Palea elliptic; coriaceous; 2 -veined; without keels.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Anthers 3; 1-1.8 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis 2.5 mm long.
Distribution
Europe: southwestern, southeastern, and eastern. Africa: north, Macaronesia, northeast tropical, and south. Asia-temperate: Soviet far east, Soviet Middle Asia, Caucasus, western Asia, Arabia, and China. Asia-tropical: India. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand. Pacific: north-central. North America: northwest USA, southwest USA, and Mexico. South America: western South America and southern South America.
Reference
Aveneae. Fl Turk.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Baleares, Canary Is., Cyprus, East Aegean Is., Egypt, France, Greece, Gulf States, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Kriti, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Madeira, Morocco, North Caucasus, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Sinai, Spain, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Yemen, Yugoslavia

Introduced into:

Argentina Northeast, Arizona, Austria, Bolivia, California, Cape Provinces, China South-Central, Czechoslovakia, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Germany, Hawaii, Kamchatka, Louisiana, Maryland, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southwest, New Jersey, New South Wales, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Northern Provinces, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Primorye, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Uruguay, Victoria, Washington, Western Australia

Phalaris paradoxa L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Oct 12, 1956 Bourgeau, E. [154], Greece K000808992
Sieber, F.W. [s.n.], Egypt K000808991
Heldreich, T.H.H.von [894], Greece K000838008
Heldreich, T.H.H.von [894], Greece K000838009

First published in Sp. Pl. ed. 2: 1665 (1763)

Accepted by

  • Engelmaier, P. & Wilhalm, T. (2018). Alien grasses (Poaceae) in the flora of the Eastern Alps Neilreichia 9: 177-245.
  • Garcillán, P.P. & al. (2013). Plantas no nativas naturalizadas de la península de Baja California, México Botanical Sciences 91: 461-475.
  • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
  • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
  • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wilson, A. (ed.) (2009). Flora of Australia 44A: 1-410. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
  • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
  • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1993). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 2(2): 433-968. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Kharkevich, S.S., Probatova, N.S. & Novikov, V.S. (1985). Sosudistye rasteniia sovetskogo Dal’nego Vostoka 1: 1-383. Izd-vo "Nauka," Leningradskoe otd-nie, Leningrad.
  • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
  • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
  • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.

Literature

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Engelmaier, P. & Wilhalm, T. (2018). Alien grasses (Poaceae) in the flora of the Eastern Alps Neilreichia 9: 177-245.
  • Garcillán, P.P. & al. (2013). Plantas no nativas naturalizadas de la península de Baja California, México Botanical Sciences 91: 461-475.
  • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
  • Hassler, M. (2012). Flora of Rhodes. Systematic list of flora of Rhodes http://www.rz.uni-karlsruhe.de/~db111/flora/rhodos/list.php.
  • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
  • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Wilson, A. (ed.) (2009). Flora of Australia 44A: 1-410. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
  • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
  • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1993). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 2(2): 433-968. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Kharkevich, S.S., Probatova, N.S. & Novikov, V.S. (1985). Sosudistye rasteniia sovetskogo Dal’nego Vostoka 1: 1-383. Izd-vo "Nauka," Leningradskoe otd-nie, Leningrad.
  • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
  • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.

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© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

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