1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Phyllostachys Siebold & Zucc.
      1. Phyllostachys nigra (Lodd. ex Lindl.) Munro

        This species is accepted, and its native range is China (Guizhou, S. Hunan).

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial. Rhizomes elongated; leptomorph. Culms erect; 300-700 cm long; 20-40 mm diam.; woody. Culm-internodes semiterete; thin-walled; 4-30 cm long; black; distally pubescent (when young). Culm-nodes with distinct supra-nodal ridge. Lateral branches dendroid. Branch complement two; in a horizontal line; with 1 branch dominant; thinner than stem. Culm-sheaths deciduous; chartaceous; pubescent; with dark brown hairs; auriculate; setose on shoulders. Culm-sheath blade triangular; wrinkled. Leaves cauline; 2-3 per branch. Leaf-sheaths glabrous on surface. Leaf-sheath oral hairs setose; dark. Leaf-sheath auricles falcate. Ligule a ciliolate membrane. Leaf-blade base with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath. Leaf-blades lanceolate; 6-12 cm long; 10-15 mm wide. Leaf-blade venation with distinct cross veins. Leaf-blade margins scabrous.
    Inflorescences
    Synflorescence bractiferous; fasciculate; dense; with spathaceous subtending bracts; bracts 10-20 mm long; without axillary buds at base of spikelet; with ultimate bract subtending a compact bracteolate fascicle of spikelets; prophyllate below lateral spikelets. Fertile spikelets sessile.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1-4 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; laterally compressed; 18-25 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1-4 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; laterally compressed; 18-25 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Glume
    Glumes one the lower absent or obscure; persistent; shorter than spikelet. Upper glume oblong; 0.6-0.7 length of adjacent fertile lemma; chartaceous; without keels; 7-9 -veined. Upper glume primary vein ciliolate. Upper glume margins ciliolate. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma lanceolate; 19 mm long; chartaceous; without keel; 9 -veined. Lemma surface pubescent. Lemma apex acuminate. Palea 0.5-0.6 length of lemma; chartaceous; 6 -veined. Palea surface pubescent; hairy on back and on flanks.
    Flowers
    Lodicules 3; 3.5 mm long; veined; ciliate. Anthers 3; 7 mm long. Stigmas 3. Ovary umbonate.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp.
    Distribution
    Africa: western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: Caucasus, China, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: Indo-China. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand. Pacific: north-central.
    Reference
    Bambuseae. Lin.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    China South-Central, China Southeast

    Introduced into:

    Austria, Brazil Southeast, China North-Central, Georgia, Great Britain, Hawaii, Japan, Jawa, Korea, Lesser Sunda Is., Nansei-shoto, New South Wales, New Zealand North, Philippines, Queensland, Seychelles, South Carolina, Tennessee, Tibet, Vietnam, Virginia, West Virginia

    Phyllostachys nigra (Lodd. ex Lindl.) Munro appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Bean, W.J. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000912136
    Bean, W.J. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000912137
    s.coll. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000912138
    s.coll. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000912139
    s.coll. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000912140

    First published in Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26: 38 (1868)

    Accepted by

    • Engelmaier, P. & Wilhalm, T. (2018). Alien grasses (Poaceae) in the flora of the Eastern Alps Neilreichia 9: 177-245.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Wilson, A. (ed.) (2009). Flora of Australia 44A: 1-410. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
    • Robertson, S.A. (1989). Flowering Plants of Seychelles: 1-327. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Ohwi, J. (1984). Flora of Japan (in English): 1-1067. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
    • Walker, E.H. (1976). Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu islands: 1-1159. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., U.S.A.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Engelmaier, P. & Wilhalm, T. (2018). Alien grasses (Poaceae) in the flora of the Eastern Alps Neilreichia 9: 177-245.
    • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
    • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Wilson, A. (ed.) (2009). Flora of Australia 44A: 1-410. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • H?, P.-H. (2000). Câyc? Vi?tnam. An Illustrated flora of Vietnam, ed. 2, 3: 1-1020. Pham-hoang Ho, Montréal.
    • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
    • Robertson, S.A. (1989). Flowering Plants of Seychelles: 1-327. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Ohwi, J. (1984). Flora of Japan (in English): 1-1067. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
    • Walker, E.H. (1976). Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu islands: 1-1159. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., U.S.A.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/