1. Family: Zygophyllaceae R.Br.
    1. Tribulus L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and is native to Europe, Asia-Tropical, Africa, Pacific, Ecuador, Australasia and Asia-Temperate..

    [FTEA]

    Zygophyllaceae, M. Nabil El Hadidi (Faculty of Science, Cairo University). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1985

    Habit
    Annual pubescent or rarely glabrous herbs, sometimes of biennial or perennial growth with woody basal stock; hairs unicellar with bulbous bases; branches usually prostrate but in some species apparently decumbent or erect
    Leaves
    Leaves paired at each node, one markedly smaller than the other (small and large leaves alternating at consecutive nodes), paripinnate; leaflets in 5-10 pairs, sessile, unequal-sided, oblong to ovate; stipules 2, lanceolate to ovate, membranous
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary at each node, subtended by the smaller leaf, 5-merous, regular, 5-40 mm. across
    Calyx
    Sepals 5, ovate to narrowly lanceolate, hairy outside, deciduous or rarely persistent
    Corolla
    Petals 5, white to golden yellow, narrowly lanceolate to broadly ovate, 2-22 × 1-18 mm., rarely equal to and usually 2-3 times as long as the sepals
    Stamens
    Stamens 5-10; smaller flowers (5-8 mm. across) usually have 5 stamens in 1 whorl, medium-sized flowers (8-20 mm. across) have 6-8 stamens, while large flowers (over 20 mm. across) have 8-10 stamens in 2 whorls; the outer whorl consists usually of 5 stamens; anthers oblong-cordate; filaments without scales; intrastaminal glands 10, free or connate to form a shallow cup at the base of the ovary
    Pistil
    Ovary sessile, covered with erect bristle-like hairs, 5-lobed, 5-locular, each locule with 2-5 ovules; style rather short to absent; stigma conspicuous, pyramidal or hemispherical
    Fruits
    Fruit 5-angled, disc- or cone-shaped, splitting at length into 5 indehiscent mericarps; mericarp dorsally unarmed, spinous or winged, 2-5-seeded
    Seeds
    Seeds without endosperm.
    [FZ]

    Zygophyllaceae, E. Launert. Flora Zambesiaca 2:1. 1963

    Habit
    Annual or perennial xerophilous herbs, sometimes with a woody base, very rarely shrubby, with usually prostrate or ascending branches.
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite, one of each pair usually longer than the other, paripinnate; leaflets opposite, sessile or very shortly petiolate, entire and somewhat oblique.
    Stipules
    Stipules herbaceous.
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary, axillary.
    Calyx
    Sepals 5, deciduous or sometimes persistent.
    Corolla
    Petals 5, usually yellow, rarely white, shorter to longer than the sepals, spreading.
    Stamens
    Stamens 10 (very rarely 5, but not in species of our area); filaments subulate, with extra-and intrastaminal glands at the base; anthers cordate or oblong-cordate.
    Pistil
    Ovary 5-lobed, consisting of 5 concrescent carpels with 3–5 ovules in each carpel, densely covered with stiff erect hairs; stigma 5-angled, pyramidal or hemispheric, formed by fusion of the 5 stigmatic lobes.
    Fruits
    Fruit at length breaking up into 5 cocci; cocci dorsally tuberculate and provided with spines or wings, rarely unarmed, 1–5-seeded.
    Seeds
    Seeds without endosperm.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Altay, Angola, Austria, Baleares, Bangladesh, Benin, Botswana, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, Buryatiya, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Central European Rus, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Corse, Czechoslovakia, Djibouti, East Aegean Is., Ecuador, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, France, Free State, Gambia, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Greece, Guinea, Gulf States, Hainan, Howland-Baker Is., Hungary, India, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Ivory Coast, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kirgizstan, Korea, Kriti, Krym, Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesser Sunda Is., Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Maldives, Mali, Manchuria, Mauritania, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Mozambique Channel I, Namibia, New Caledonia, New South Wales, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Phoenix Is., Portugal, Qinghai, Queensland, Romania, Rwanda, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sicilia, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, South Australia, South China Sea, South European Russi, Spain, Sudan, Swaziland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tibet, Togo, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tunisia, Turkey-in-Europe, Tuva, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, West Siberia, Western Australia, Western Sahara, Xinjiang, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Aldabra, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Bahamas, Bolivia, British Columbia, California, Cayman Is., Chile North, Colombia, Colorado, Cuba, Delaware, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Florida, Galápagos, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Jamaica, Kansas, Kentucky, Leeward Is., Louisiana, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mauritius, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Netherlands Antilles, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Panamá, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Primorye, Puerto Rico, Réunion, South Carolina, South Dakota, St.Helena, Suriname, Tennessee, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Uruguay, Utah, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Washington, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Wyoming

    Tribulus L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Coode, M. [4671], Reunion 35465.000
    Rico, L. [1270], Bolivia K000295088

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 386 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 1: 283.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 183 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl. 1: 386 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Hadidi in Taeckholmia 9: 59-66 (1978)
    • Schweickerdt in Bothalia 3: 159-178 (1937)
    • Engler in E. & P. Pf., ed. 2, 19a: 174-177 (1931)
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 183 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 386 (1753)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0