1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Saccharum L.
      1. Saccharum arundinaceum Retz.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Asia.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Culms erect; robust; 200-400 cm long; 20 mm diam. Culm-internodes solid. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades 50-100 cm long; 25-50 mm wide. Leaf-blade midrib conspicuous. Leaf-blade apex acuminate.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle with branches tipped by a raceme. Peduncle glabrous. Panicle open; ovate; 30-80 cm long; 15 cm wide. Primary panicle branches whorled at most nodes. Panicle branches glabrous. Rhachis fragile at the nodes; subterete; villous on surface. Rhachis internodes filiform; 3.5-4 mm long. Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile and pedicelled; 2 in the cluster; subequal. Pedicels filiform; 2-2.5 mm long; villous.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 2.5-2.7 mm long; falling entire; deciduous from the base, or with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus bearded; base truncate. Spikelet callus hairs white; 1.5 length of spikelet.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 2.5-2.7 mm long; falling entire; deciduous from the base, or with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus bearded; base truncate. Spikelet callus hairs white; 1.5 length of spikelet.
    Glume
    Glumes similar; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; much thinner above; 2-keeled. Lower glume primary vein scabrous. Lower glume surface flat; villous. Lower glume margins ciliate. Lower glume hairs 5.4 mm long. Lower glume apex acuminate. Upper glume lanceolate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; much thinner above; without keels; 3 -veined. Upper glume margins ciliate. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret linear; 2.4-2.6 mm long; hyaline; 1 -veined; without lateral veins; ciliolate on margins; acute. Fertile lemma linear; 2.4-2.5 mm long; hyaline; 1 -veined. Palea absent or minute.
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2; cuneate; ciliate. Anthers 3.
    Distribution
    Asia-temperate: China and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, Malesia, and Papuasia.
    Reference
    Andropogoneae. Gilliland 1993.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Borneo, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Hainan, Jawa, Korea, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam, West Himalaya

    Saccharum arundinaceum Retz. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Wight, R. [1681], India K000943383
    s.coll. [s.n.], India K000943382 Unknown type material

    First published in Observ. Bot. 4: 14 (1786)

    Accepted by

    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
    • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
    • Walker, E.H. (1976). Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu islands: 1-1159. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., U.S.A.
    • Gilliland, H.B. (1971). A revised flora of Malaya 3: 1-319. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Singapore.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Sarmah, K.K. & Borthakur, S.K. (2009). A checklist of angiospermic plants of Manas national park in Assam, India Pleione 3: 190-200.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Walker, E.H. (1976). Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu islands: 1-1159. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., U.S.A.
    • Gilliland, H.B. (1971). A revised flora of Malaya 3: 1-319. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Singapore.
    • Henty, E.E. (1969). A manual of the grasses of New Guinea: 1-215. Division of Botany, Dpt. of Forests, LAE, New Guinea.
    • Masamune, G. (1942). Enumeratio phanerogamarum Bornearum: 1-739. Taihoku, Formosa.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0