1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Setaria P.Beauv.
      1. Setaria sphacelata (Schumach.) Stapf & C.E.Hubb. ex Moss

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, Madagascar.

    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Tufted perennial arising from short rhizomes, these occasionally elongated and creeping; basal sheaths often flabellate, sometimes conspicuously so; culms 20–300 cm. high, the nodes quite glabrous.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades flat or convolute, 10–50 cm. long, 2–17 mm. wide, acuminate.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle spiciform, cylindrical, 3–50 cm. long, spikelets pallid to purple with fulvous bristles (except var. torta), the rhachis tomentellous; bristles 1.5–12 mm. long, 6–15 below each cluster of 1–4 spikelets.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets elliptic, oblique but scarcely gibbous or laterally compressed, 1.5–3.5 mm. long; lower glume up to 1/2 as long as the spikelet, obtuse or acute; upper glume 1/3–2/3(–3/4) as long as the spikelet, (3–)5-nerved; lower floret male, its lemma thinly papery; upper lemma rugose, usually strongly so, but occasionally almost smooth.
    Habitat
    Occupies a wide range of habitats from stony hillsides in deciduous bushland or wooded grassland, to swamps and riversides; the habitat seems to be independent of variety; 0–3300 m.
    Distribution
    K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 tropical and South Africa;
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora Zambesiaca 10:3. 1989

    Habit
    Tufted perennial, arising from a short rhizome.
    Culms
    Culms 20–300 cm. high, the nodes quite glabrous.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle 3–50 cm. long, spiciform, cylindrical, spikelets mostly pallid to purple with fulvous bristles, the rhachis tomentellous; bristles 1.5–12 mm. long, 6–15 below each cluster of 1–4 spikelets.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 1.5–3.5 mm. long, elliptic, oblique but scarcely gibbous or laterally compressed.
    Glume
    Inferior glume up to 1/2, the superior 1/3–2/3(3/4) length of spikelet and (3)5-nerved.
    Florets
    Inferior floret male, its lemma thinly papery. Superior floret rugose, usually strongly so, but occasionally almost smooth.
    Inferior
    Inferior floret male, its lemma thinly papery.
    Superior
    Superior floret rugose, usually strongly so, but occasionally almost smooth.
    [FWTA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

    Habit
    Caespitose perennial about 1 m. high, arising from a short rhizome.
    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Rhizomes short, or elongated. Butt sheaths withering, or persistent and investing base of culm; with fibrous dead sheaths. Basal innovations subterete, or flabellate. Culms 20-300 cm long. Culm-nodes glabrous. Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades flat, or convolute; 10-50 cm long; 2-17 mm wide. Leaf-blade apex acuminate.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle spiciform; linear; 3-50 cm long. Primary panicle branches accrescent to a central axis; with evident branchlets on axis. Panicle axis pubescent. Spikelets subtended by an involucre. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1-4 in the cluster. Involucre composed of bristles; 1.5-12 mm long. Involucral bristles persistent; 6-15 in principal whorl; flexible; antrorsely scaberulous; glabrous.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; dorsally compressed; 1.5-3.5 mm long; falling entire.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; dorsally compressed; 1.5-3.5 mm long; falling entire.
    Glume
    Glumes shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate; 0.25-0.5 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 3(-5) -veined. Lower glume apex obtuse, or acute. Upper glume ovate; 0.33-0.66(-0.75) length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 5 -veined. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets male; with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret ovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; 5 -veined; acute. Fertile lemma ovate; dorsally compressed; gibbous; 1-3 mm long; indurate; without keel. Lemma surface rugose. Lemma margins involute. Lemma apex acute. Palea involute; indurate.
    Distribution
    Africa: west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, middle Atlantic ocean, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: Arabia. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, Malesia, and Papuasia. Australasia: Australia. Pacific: southwestern, south-central, northwestern, and north-central. North America: southwest USA. South America: Mesoamericana, western South America, Brazil, and southern South America.
    Reference
    Paniceae. FTEA.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Andaman Is., Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Bangladesh, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, California, Cambodia, Caroline Is., Cook Is., Costa Rica, East Himalaya, Easter Is., Ecuador, Fiji, Florida, Hawaii, Honduras, India, Jawa, Laos, Marianas, Mexico Central, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Myanmar, New Guinea, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Philippines, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Society Is., Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Taiwan, Thailand, Uruguay, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Yemen

    Common Names

    English
    Buffalo grass, Common bristle grass, Dog's tail, Golden Timothy grass, Golden bristle grass, Golden setaria, Golden tumbling grass, Land grass, Old-land's grass

    Setaria sphacelata (Schumach.) Stapf & C.E.Hubb. ex Moss appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1960 Latilo, M.G. [28982], Cameroon K000022791
    Dalziel, J.M. [8424], Ghana K000282027
    Pole-Evans, I.B. [3672], South Africa K000281785 paratype
    Eyles, F. [4569], Zimbabwe K000281812 syntype
    Eyles, F. [2912], Zimbabwe K000281811 syntype
    Trapnell, C.G. [586], South Africa K000281780
    Stolz, A. [2323], Tanzania K000281871 holotype
    Stolz, A. [2323], Tanzania K000281870 holotype
    Hutchinson, J. [1252], South Africa K000281778
    Schweinfurth, G. [182], Sudan K000281934 holotype
    Hatschbach, G. [76855], Brazil K001102938
    Schimper [409], Ethiopia K000281931 lectotype
    Schimper [409], Ethiopia K000281930 lectotype
    Schimper [409], Ethiopia K000281932
    Schimper, Ethiopia K000281933 isotype
    Kassner [2138], Zambia K000281944
    Warnecke [318], Togo K000282034
    Zeyher [4485], South Africa K000281761
    Buchanan [236], Malawi K000281808
    Flanagan, H.G. [938], South Africa K000281759 syntype
    Burchell, W.J. [663a], South Africa K000281767
    Burchell, W.J. [3839], South Africa K000281768
    Burchell, W.J. [4021], South Africa K000281769
    Burchell, W.J. [4767], South Africa K000281771
    Burchell, W.J. [5462], South Africa K000281770
    Buchanan, J. [169], South Africa K000281783
    Drège, South Africa K000281758 syntype
    Ecklon [844], South Africa K000281775
    Rehmann, A. [5385], South Africa K000281781 isosyntype
    Linton, A. [2], Kenya K000281875
    Bolus, H. [675], South Africa K000281760 syntype
    Homblé, H.A. [13], Zaire K000281943
    Homblé, H.A. [31], Zaire K000281942
    Homblé, H.A. [61], Zaire K000281941
    Vanderyst, H. [4553], Zaire K000281938 isosyntype
    Vanderyst, H. [4539], Zaïre K000281937 isosyntype
    MacOwan, P. [1305b], South Africa K000281763
    MacOwan, P. [1305a], South Africa K000281764
    MacOwan, P. [1305a], South Africa K000281765
    MacOwan, P. [1317], South Africa K000281766
    MacOwan, P. [1018], South Africa K000281773
    MacOwan, P. [1017], South Africa K000281774
    MacOwan, P. [1310], South Africa K000281777 syntype
    E.S.C.A.Herbarium [103], South Africa K000281762
    Baur, R. [1158], South Africa K000281776
    Homblé [747], Zaire K000281810
    Homblé [883], Zaire K000281946
    Barter, C. [s.n.], Nigeria K000282038
    Barter, C. [1359], Nigeria K000282037
    Lyne, R.N. [155], Kenya K000281873
    Hens, F. [257], Zaire K000281945 isosyntype
    Liebenberg, L.C.C. [3291], South Africa K000281756
    Liebenberg, L.C.C. [3291], South Africa K000281757
    Pentz, J.A. [611], South Africa K000281782
    Busse, W. [1100], Tanzania K000281872
    Bos, J.J. [1206], South Africa K000281784
    Chipp, T.F. [185], Ghana K000282033
    Richardson, A.J., Nigeria K000282029 holotype
    Howes, F.N. [983], Ghana K000282031 lectotype
    Howes, F.N. [983], Ghana K000282032 lectotype
    Shantz, H.L. [993], Kenya K000281874
    Shantz, H.L. [796], Tanzania K000281876
    Shantz, H.L. [986], Kenya K000281879
    Shantz, H.L. [987], Kenya K000281880
    Shantz, H.L. [485], Zaire K000281940
    Shantz, H.L. [505], Zaire K000281939 syntype
    Goossens, A.P. [1824], South Africa K000281779 paratype
    Walters [2225], Zimbabwe K000281809
    Snowden [1103], Uganda K000281878
    Snowden [1103], Uganda K000281877
    Haarer [1709], Tanzania K000281881 syntype
    Cartwright, T. [18], Sudan K000281915 syntype
    Cartwright, T. [18], Sudan K000281916 syntype
    Fisher, J.W.D. [2013], Sierra Leone K000282030 holotype
    Thonning, P. [s.n.], Ghana K000282028 kleptotype
    Gill [s.n.], South Africa K000281772
    Harris, T. [176], Mozambique K000613251
    Nascimento, M.S.B. [1381], Brazil K001102937
    Timberlake, J. [5255], Mozambique K000613984
    Nov 1, 2008 Cheek, M. [13505], Cameroon Setaria sphacelata var. sericea K000580327
    Oct 1, 1962 Brunt, M.A. [836], Cameroon Setaria sphacelata var. sericea K000022789
    Jun 1, 1960 Keay, R.W.J. [28502], Cameroon Setaria sphacelata var. sericea K000022797
    Jun 1, 1960 Pedder, J. W. R. [5], Cameroon Setaria sphacelata var. sericea K000022795
    Jun 1, 1960 Pedder, J. W. R. [17], Cameroon Setaria sphacelata var. sericea K000022796
    Hepper, F.N. [2070], Cameroon Setaria sphacelata var. sericea K000022792
    Brunt, M.A. [973], Cameroon Setaria sphacelata var. sericea K000022786
    Brunt, M.A. [873], Cameroon Setaria sphacelata var. sericea K000022787
    Brunt, M.A. [871], Cameroon Setaria sphacelata var. sericea K000022788
    Brunt, M.A. [1095], Cameroon Setaria sphacelata var. sericea K000022790
    Charter, J. R. [36985], Cameroon Setaria sphacelata var. sericea K000022794
    Oct 1, 1962 Brunt, M.A. [261 B], Cameroon Setaria sphacelata var. aurea K000022784
    Oct 1, 1962 Brunt, M.A. [690], Cameroon Setaria sphacelata var. aurea K000022785

    First published in Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1929: 195 (1929)

    Accepted by

    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kuo, M.L. (ed.) (2012). Flora of Taiwan, ed. 2, Suppl.: 1-414. Editorial Committee of the Flora of Taiwan, Second Edition, National Taiwan University.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 2: 360-550. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1989). Flora Zambesiaca 10(3): 1-231. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lebrun, J.P. (1973). Énumération des plantes vasculaires du Sénégal: 1-209. Maisons Alfort: Institut d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
    • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Berhaut, Fl. Sén. ed. 2, 396.
    • Clayton in Kew Bull. 20: 262
    • A. Chev. in Rev. Bot. Appliq. 14: 30
    • F.T.A. 9: 795, partly
    • in Kew Bull. 1929: 195 (1929)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
    • Kuo, M.L. (ed.) (2012). Flora of Taiwan, ed. 2, Suppl.: 1-414. Editorial Committee of the Flora of Taiwan, Second Edition, National Taiwan University.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1989). Flora Zambesiaca 10(3): 1-231. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    • Brown, L.C. (1982). The Flora and Fauna of St Helena: 1-88. Land Resources Development Centre, Surbiton, England.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
    • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.
    • Camus, E.G. & Camus, A. in H. Lecomte (1922). Flore Générale de l'indo-Chine 1(3): 193-336.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Clayton in Kew Bulletin 33: 503–505 (1979).
    • Clayton in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3: 423 (1972)
    • Hacker & Jones in Trop. Grasslands 3: 13–34 (1969).
    • Clayton in Kew Bulletin 20: 262–264 (1966).
    • D.M. Napper, Grasses of Tanganyika: 84 (1965).
    • Bogdan in Comptes Rendus IV Réun. AETFAT: 311–317 (1961).
    • K.W. Harker & D.M. Napper, An Illustrated Guide to the Grasses of Uganda p. 54 (1960).
    • A.V. Bogdan, A Revised List of Kenya Grasses p. 41 (1958).
    • Jackson & Wiehe, Ann. list Nyasaland grasses: 59 (1958).
    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Sudan 3: 533 (1956).
    • Robyns, Flore des Spermatophytes du Parc National Albert 3: 113 (1955).
    • Edwards & Bogdan, Imp. Grassl. Pl. Kenya: 50 (1951).
    • Eggeling, Ann. list grasses Ug.: 42 (1947).
    • Robyns, Fl. Agrost. Congo Belge 2: 259 (1934).
    • Stapf & C. E. Hubbard in Flora of Tropical Africa 9: 795 (1930).
    • Moss in Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information, Kew 1929: 195 (1929).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/