1. Family: Amaryllidaceae J.St.-Hil.
    1. Genus: Caliphruria Herb.
      1. Caliphruria tenera Baker

        The genus Caliphruria contains four species of small, bulbous, perennial herbs with white funnel-shaped flowers. One species ( C. korsakoffii) is native to Peru, and the other three ( C. tenera, C. hartwegiana and C. subedentata) are restricted to Colombia. C. tenera possesses the smallest flowers of the Colombian species. It is readily distinguished by its lack of leaves at the time of flowering and the long teeth of the androecium (male sexual organs) which greatly exceed the six short, free filaments. C. tenera is known from only two pressed and dried specimens collected over 150 years ago. The first specimen was collected in 1844 by the French explorer Justin Goudot (with no collection number), and the second in 1853 by the Colombian botanist José Triana (collection number 1289). No further specimens are known, and C. tenera is now considered to be extinct. All members of the genera Caliphruria and Eucharis are known by the common name ‘Amazon lily’.

    [KSP]

    Kew Species Profiles

    General Description
    A bulbous herb with small white flowers, Caliphruria tenera has not been recorded in the wild since 1853, and is now considered to possibly be extinct.

    The genus Caliphruria contains four species of small, bulbous, perennial herbs with white funnel-shaped flowers. One species ( C. korsakoffii) is native to Peru, and the other three ( C. tenera, C. hartwegiana and C. subedentata) are restricted to Colombia. C. tenera possesses the smallest flowers of the Colombian species. It is readily distinguished by its lack of leaves at the time of flowering and the long teeth of the androecium (male sexual organs) which greatly exceed the six short, free filaments. C. tenera is known from only two pressed and dried specimens collected over 150 years ago. The first specimen was collected in 1844 by the French explorer Justin Goudot (with no collection number), and the second in 1853 by the Colombian botanist José Triana (collection number 1289). No further specimens are known, and C. tenera is now considered to be extinct. All members of the genera Caliphruria and Eucharis are known by the common name ‘Amazon lily’.

    Species Profile

    Geography and distribution

    Native to Colombia, Caliphruria tenera is known only from two specimens collected there over 150 years ago. One specimen was collected in the Rio Magdalena valley (‘noted as ‘Rio Luo’ on the specimen label) and the other in ‘Cundinamarca? Prov. Bogota, Copo la Parada’. It is known to have occurred at 400 m above sea level.

    Description

    Overview: Caliphruria tenera is a small, bulbous, perennial herb. The bulb is spherical or ellipsoid, and about 25 mm in diameter, or 30 mm x 17.5 mm. The tunic (coat around bulb) is greyish-brown or tan.

    Leaves: The leaves are hysteranthous (do not develop until after flowering).

    Flowers: The slender scape (leafless flower stalk) is 16-27 cm tall and 1-2 mm in diameter. Each plant bears 5-10 white, 17-19 mm long funnel shaped flowers on long, thin pedicels. The stamens (male parts) each consist of two long teeth with a shorter, free filament inserted between them. The style (female part) has a 3-lobed stigma and the ovary is spherical.

    Fruits:The fruits and seeds are unknown.

    Threats and conservation

    Large-scale deforestation is a threat to other Caliphruriaspecies, which are unable to tolerate the higher light intensity in cleared areas. After the primary forest has been cleared the bulbs persist for a few seasons, but when the leaves develop without the protective shade of the forest canopy they show chlorosis and die back. However, so little is known about C. tenera as an individual species, that it is impossible to be certain of the precise factors that led to its demise. The fact that its leaves do not develop until after flowering has occurred, suggests it may have inhabited drier environments than the other species of Caliphruria.

    Conservation assessments carried out at Kew

    Caliphruria tenerais being monitored as part of the IUCN Sampled Red List Index for Plants, which aims to produce conservation assessments for a representative sample of the world’s plant species. This information will then be used to monitor trends in extinction risk and help focus conservation efforts where they are needed most.

    C. tenerais rated as Critically Endangered and is considered Possibly Extinct. It will continue to be monitored as part of the project until Extinct status can be confirmed, at which point it will be removed from the list and replaced with a new species. 

    Uses

    There is no information available on any previous uses of Caliphruria tenera. Other Caliphruriaspecies, such as C. subedentata, are prized for their highly ornamental dark, glossy foliage. Bulbs of the closely related genus Eucharisare collected by lowland native people in Central and South America for use in poultices, the bulbs being mashed, heated and applied to sores and tumours.

    This species at Kew

    The pressed and dried specimen (seen in the image, above) collected by the French explorer Justin Goudot in 1844 in Colombia and used by Kew botanist John Gilbert Baker when naming the species in 1888, is held in the Herbarium at Kew.

    The image and details of this type specimen can be seen online in the Herbarium Catalogue. The specimen is part of the Herbarium Hookerianum(1867), which contains preserved plant specimens from the formerly private collections of William and Joseph Hooker now incorporated in the Herbarium.

    Ecology
    Understorey of primary rainforest, in highly fertile soils.
    Conservation
    Critically Endangered (CR) and considered Possibly Extinct according to IUCN Red List criteria.
    Hazards

    None known.

    [KSP]
    Use
    None known, but the related C. subedentata is cultivated as an ornamental.

    Images

    Distribution

    Common Names

    English
    Amazon lily

    Caliphruria tenera Baker appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Identified Reference Herbarium Specimen Type Status
    Goudot [s n], Colombia K000322288 Unknown type material

    First published in Handb. Amaryll.: 112 (1888)

    Accepted in:

    • [2] Govaerts, R. (1999) World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    • [1] Crook, V. (2008). Caliphruria tenera. Assessment using IUCN Categories and Criteria 3.1 (IUCN 2001). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • [3] Walter, K.S. & Gillett, H.J. (1998). 1997 IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants. WCMC/IUCN.

    • [4] Meerow, A. (1989). Systematics of the Amazon Lilies, Eucharis and Caliphruria (Amaryllidaceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 76: 136-220.

    Sources

    International Plant Names Index
    The International Plant Names Index (2016). Published on the Internet http://www.ipni.org
    [A] © Copyright 2016 International Plant Names Index. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Species Profiles
    Kew Species Profiles
    [B] http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    [C]

    World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
    World Checklist of Selected Plant Families(2016). Published on the Internet http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    [D] See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    [E] © Copyright 2016 International Plant Names Index and World Checkist of Selected Plant Families. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0