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  1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Urochloa P.Beauv.
      1. Urochloa trichopus (Hochst.) Stapf

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, Arabian Peninsula, Madagascar.

    [FZ]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora Zambesiaca 10:3. 1989

    Habit
    Coarse annual, the basal sheaths glabrous to loosely pubescent.
    Note
    Otherwise like U. mosambicensis.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Coarse tufted annual, the basal sheaths glabrous to loosely pubescent; culms 20–170 cm. high, ascending.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades broadly linear, 5–30 cm. long, 5–20 mm. wide, ± hispid.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence of 3–20 racemes on a common axis 4–20 cm. long; racemes 1–14 cm. long, bearing single spikelets on a narrowly winged rhachis.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets ovate, 2.5–5.5 mm. long, acuminate or with a short awn-point; lower glume elliptic-oblong, 2/3–5/6 the length of the spikelet, membranous, 3-nerved, often with a tuft of hairs from the middle of the back, obtuse; upper glume glabrous or pubescent; lower lemma nearly always with a setose fringe; upper lemma papillose, becoming rugulose on the flanks, with a mucro 0.5–1 mm. long.
    Figures
    Fig. 141.
    Habitat
    Wooded grassland and coastal bushland, usually on sandy soils and often following cultivation; 0–1300 m.
    Distribution
    K2 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 throughout tropical Africa, but mainly in the east
    [GB]
    Habit
    Annual; caespitose. Culms geniculately ascending; 20-170 cm long. Culm-nodes pubescent. Leaf-sheaths glabrous on surface, or pubescent; with tubercle-based hairs; outer margin hairy. Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blade base broadly rounded, or amplexicaul. Leaf-blades linear, or lanceolate; 5-30 cm long; 5-20 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface glabrous, or hispid; with tubercle-based hairs. Leaf-blade margins ciliate. Leaf-blade apex acute.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes 3-20; borne along a central axis; unilateral; 1-14 cm long. Central inflorescence axis 4-20 cm long. Rhachis narrowly winged; with sharp-edged midrib. Spikelet packing abaxial; regular; 2 -rowed. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels oblong.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; dorsally compressed; compressed strongly; plano-convex; acuminate; 2.5-5.5 mm long; falling entire.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; dorsally compressed; compressed strongly; plano-convex; acuminate; 2.5-5.5 mm long; falling entire.
    Glume
    Glumes dissimilar; reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume oblong; 0.6-0.8 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 3 -veined. Lower glume surface without hair tufts, or with a dorsal tuft of hair. Lower glume apex obtuse. Upper glume ovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 5 -veined. Upper glume surface glabrous, or pubescent. Upper glume apex acuminate.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets male; with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret similar to upper glume; ovate; 1.2-1.3 length of fertile lemma; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; 5 -veined; ciliate on margins; acuminate. Fertile lemma orbicular; dorsally compressed; gibbous; hemispherical; 2-4 mm long; indurate; yellow; without keel; 5-7 -veined. Lemma surface granulose; rugulose. Lemma margins involute. Lemma apex obtuse; mucronate. Principal lemma awn 0.5-1 mm long overall. Palea orbicular; indurate. Palea apex obtuse.
    Distribution
    Africa: west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, and south. Asia-temperate: Arabia. North America: south-central USA.
    Reference
    Paniceae. FTEA.
    [FWTA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

    Habit
    A coarsely leaved annual about 60 cm. high.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Tufted or stoloniferous perennial, the basal sheaths silky pubescent; culms 20–150 cm. high, ascending.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades broadly linear to narrowly lanceolate, 2–30 cm. long, 3–20 mm. wide.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence of (2–)3–15 racemes on a common axis 3–12 cm. long; racemes 2–8 cm. long, bearing single or sometimes paired spikelets on a narrowly winged rhachis.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets ovate, 3–5 mm. long, acuminate; lower glume oblong (1/2–)2/3–3/4 the length of the spikelet, membranous, 3-nerved, often with a tuft of hairs from the middle of the back, obtuse; upper glume glabrous or pubescent; lower lemma with or without a setose fringe; upper lemma rugulose, with a mucro 0.5–1.2 mm. long.
    Habitat
    Wooded grassland and deciduous bushland, often on seasonally flooded clays or on disturbed sites; 0–1400 m.
    Distribution
    southwards to South Africaalso in Burmaintroduced to several other tropical countries as a forage crop K4 K7 T2 T3 T5 T6 T7 T8 U1
    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; culms solitary, or caespitose. Stolons absent, or present. Butt sheaths pubescent. Culms geniculately ascending; 20-150 cm long. Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades linear, or lanceolate; 2-30 cm long; 3-20 mm wide.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes (2-)3-15; borne along a central axis; unilateral; 2-8 cm long. Central inflorescence axis 3-12 cm long. Rhachis narrowly winged; angular. Spikelet packing abaxial; regular; 2 -rowed. Spikelets solitary, or in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile and pedicelled.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; dorsally compressed; compressed strongly; plano-convex; acuminate; 3-5 mm long; falling entire.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; dorsally compressed; compressed strongly; plano-convex; acuminate; 3-5 mm long; falling entire.
    Glume
    Glumes dissimilar; reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume oblong; (0.5-)0.66-0.75 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 3 -veined. Lower glume surface without hair tufts, or with a dorsal tuft of hair. Lower glume apex obtuse. Upper glume ovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 5 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins with cross-veins. Upper glume surface glabrous, or pubescent. Upper glume apex acuminate.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets male; with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret similar to upper glume; ovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; 5 -veined; eciliate on margins, or setose on margins; acuminate. Fertile lemma orbicular; dorsally compressed; 2-4 mm long; indurate; without keel. Lemma surface granulose; rugulose. Lemma margins involute. Lemma apex obtuse; mucronate. Principal lemma awn 0.5-1.2 mm long overall. Palea indurate.
    Distribution
    Africa: west tropical, west-central tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, and western Indian ocean. Asia-tropical: Indo-China, Malesia, and Papuasia. Australasia: Australia. North America: south-central USA. South America: Brazil.
    Reference
    Paniceae. FTEA.
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora Zambesiaca 10:3. 1989

    Habit
    Tufted or stoloniferous perennial, the basal sheaths silky pubescent.
    Culms
    Culms 20–170 cm. high, ascending.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf laminae broadly linear, ± hispid.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence of 3–20 racemes, these 1–14 cm. long, bearing usually single spikelets on a narrowly winged rhachis.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 2.5–5.5 mm. long, ovate, glabrous, pubescent or setosely fringed, acuminate sometimes to a subulate tip.
    Glume
    Inferior glume 2/3–5/6 length of spikelet, elliptic-oblong, 3–nerved, slightly cartilaginous and shiny, often with a tuft of hairs from middle of back. Superior glume usually without cross-nerves.
    Lemma
    Inferior lemma usually without cross-nerves. Superior lemma granulose to rugulose, with a macro 0.5–1.2 mm. long.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Botswana, Burkina, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Chad, Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Argentina Northwest, Brazil Northeast, Christmas I., Ghana, India, Myanmar, Northern Territory, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Solomon Is., Texas, Western Australia

    Synonyms

    Common Names

    English
    Buffalo grass, Bushveld herringbone grass, Bushveld signal grass, Common urochloa, Goose grass, Signal grass

    Other Data

    Urochloa trichopus (Hochst.) Stapf appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1992 Schweinfurth, G. [258], Eritrea K000281981 isotype
    Nov 1, 1977 Hitchcock, A.S., Kenya K000281986
    Kotschy [74], Sudan K000281980 isotype
    Kotschy [74], Sudan K000281979 isotype
    de Carvalho, Mozambique Urochloa mosambicensis K000281991 isotype
    Wallich [8723], Myanmar Urochloa mosambicensis K000958826
    Wallich [8723], Myanmar Urochloa mosambicensis K000958827
    Rattray, J.M. [500], Zimbabwe Urochloa mosambicensis K000281994 isosyntype
    Rattray, J.M. [500], Zimbabwe Urochloa mosambicensis K000281995 isosyntype
    Stent, S.M. [5547], Zimbabwe Urochloa mosambicensis K000281997 isosyntype
    Stent, S.M. [3669], Zimbabwe Urochloa mosambicensis K000281996 isosyntype
    Nascimento, M.S.B. [1018], Brazil Urochloa mosambicensis K001102384
    Laegaard [21792], Thailand Urochloa mosambicensis K000688114
    Nascimento, M.S. [1020], Brazil Urochloa mosambicensis K001102383

    Bibliography

    First published in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 9: 589 (1920)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Aké Assi, L. (2002). Flore de la Côte-d'Ivoire: catalogue systématique, biogéographie et écologie. II Boissiera 58: 1-401.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 2: 360-550. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Lebrun, J.P., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1989). Flora Zambesiaca 10(3): 1-231. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lebrun, J.P. (1973). Énumération des plantes vasculaires du Sénégal: 1-209. Maisons Alfort: Institut d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • A. Chev. in Rev. Bot. Appliq. 13: 891.
    • in F.T.A. 9: 589 (1920)

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Aké Assi, L. (2002). Flore de la Côte-d'Ivoire: catalogue systématique, biogéographie et écologie. II Boissiera 58: 1-401.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 2: 360-550. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Lebrun, J.P., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1989). Flora Zambesiaca 10(3): 1-231. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Clayton in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3: 440 (1972).
    • D.M. Napper, Grasses of Tanganyika: 70 (1965).
    • A.V. Bogdan, A Revised List of Kenya Grasses p. 43 (1958).
    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Sudan 3: 555 (1956).
    • Chiov., Fl. Somala 2: 444 (1932).
    • Stapf in Flora of Tropical Africa 9: 589 (1920).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/