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  1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Vossia Wall. & Griff.
      1. Vossia cuspidata (Roxb.) Griff.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Africa, Assam to Indo-China.

    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Perennial; culms submerged or floating, up to 7 m. long and 1 cm. in diameter, spongy, with fibrous roots from the nodes, standing 1–2 m. out of the water.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades linear, 30–100 cm. long and 6–18 mm. wide.
    Inflorescences
    Racemes 1–12, each 10–30 cm. long.
    Spikelets
    Sessile spikelet narrowly ovate; lower glume 2–4 cm. long, the body 6–8 mm. long and yellowish, the tail green. Pedicelled spikelet a little smaller than the sessile.
    Sessile
    Sessile spikelet narrowly ovate; lower glume 2–4 cm. long, the body 6–8 mm. long and yellowish, the tail green.
    Pedicelled
    Pedicelled spikelet a little smaller than the sessile.
    Figures
    Fig. 193.
    Habitat
    In or close to water, often floating; 0–1800 m.
    Distribution
    K3 K5 T1 T2 T4 T6 T8 U1 U2 U3 U4 throughout tropical Africa and in India
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. A. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:4. 2002

    Habit
    Perennial; culms submerged or floating, up to 7 m long and 1 cm in diameter, spongy, with fibrous roots from the nodes, standing 1–2 m out of the water.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf laminas 30–100 cm × 6–18 mm, linear.
    Inflorescences
    Racemes 1–12, each 10–30 cm long.
    Spikelets
    Sessile spikelet narrowly ovate; inferior glume 2–4 cm long, the body 6–8 mm long, yellowish with green tail. Pedicelled spikelet a little smaller than the sessile.
    Sessile
    Sessile spikelet narrowly ovate; inferior glume 2–4 cm long, the body 6–8 mm long, yellowish with green tail.
    Pedicelled
    Pedicelled spikelet a little smaller than the sessile.
    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; mat forming. Culms prostrate; 100-200 cm long; 5-10 mm diam.; spongy; rooting from lower nodes. Ligule a ciliate membrane. Leaf-blades 30-100 cm long; 6-18 mm wide.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes 1-12; single, or paired, or digitate; 10-30 cm long. Rhachis fragile at the nodes (tardily); angular; scabrous on margins. Rhachis internodes cuneate. Rhachis internode tip transverse; flat. Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Pedicels cuneate; flattened; scabrous; tip rectangular.
    Sterile
    Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; ovate; dorsally compressed; shorter than fertile; separately deciduous. Companion sterile spikelet glumes coriaceous; glabrous; caudate. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas 2; enclosed by glumes.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; dorsally compressed; caudate; 20-40 mm long (the body 6-8 mm); falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus base truncate; attached transversely. Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; ovate; dorsally compressed; shorter than fertile; separately deciduous. Companion sterile spikelet glumes coriaceous; glabrous; caudate. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas 2; enclosed by glumes.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; dorsally compressed; caudate; 20-40 mm long (the body 6-8 mm); falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus base truncate; attached transversely.
    Glume
    Glumes dissimilar; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate; 2-5 length of upper glume; 1 length of spikelet; coriaceous; yellow; 2-keeled; winged on keel; winged narrowly; winged above. Lower glume primary vein scabrous. Lower glume intercarinal veins distinct. Lower glume surface flat. Lower glume apex caudate. Upper glume ovate; 8 mm long; chartaceous; 1-keeled; 5-9 -veined. Upper glume primary vein scabrous. Upper glume apex acuminate; mucronate.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets male; with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret oblong; 8 mm long; hyaline; 2 -veined. Fertile lemma oblong; hyaline; without keel; 3 -veined. Lemma margins ciliolate; hairy above. Lemma apex acute.
    Distribution
    Africa: north, west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, and south. Asia-tropical: India and Indo-China.
    Reference
    Andropogoneae. FTEA.
    [FWTA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

    Habit
    Perennial, the spongy culms submerged or floating, rooting from the submerged nodes
    Ecology
    In water near the margins of lakes and rivers.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Egypt, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda, Vietnam, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Synonyms

    Common Names

    English
    Hippo grass

    Other Data

    Vossia cuspidata (Roxb.) Griff. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Le Testu, M. [2267], Gabon K000290867 isotype

    Bibliography

    First published in Ic. Pl. Asiat.: t. 153 (1851)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Aké Assi, L. (2002). Flore de la Côte-d'Ivoire: catalogue systématique, biogéographie et écologie. II Boissiera 58: 1-401.
    • Cope, T.A. (2002). Flora Zambesiaca 10(4): 1-190. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 2: 360-550. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lebrun, J.P. (1973). Énumération des plantes vasculaires du Sénégal: 1-209. Maisons Alfort: Institut d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • Berhaut, Fl. Sén. ed. 2, 390, 398
    • including var. polystachya Koechl. in Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 108: 243 (1961).
    • A. Chev. in Rev. Bot. Appliq. 13: 849
    • F.T.A. 9: 41
    • Not. 3, Index 12 (1851)

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Aké Assi, L. (2002). Flore de la Côte-d'Ivoire: catalogue systématique, biogéographie et écologie. II Boissiera 58: 1-401.
    • Cope, T.A. (2002). Flora Zambesiaca 10(4): 1-190. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 2: 360-550. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lebrun, J.P. (1973). Énumération des plantes vasculaires du Sénégal: 1-209. Maisons Alfort: Institut d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
    • Robyns, W. (1929). Flore Agrostologique du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1: 1-229. Goemaere, Bruxelles.
    • Camus, E.G. & Camus, A. in H. Lecomte (1922). Flore Générale de l'indo-Chine 1(3): 193-336.

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Clayton in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3: 502 (1972).
    • D.M. Napper, Grasses of Tanganyika: 111 (1965).
    • K.W. Harker & D.M. Napper, An Illustrated Guide to the Grasses of Uganda p. 60 (1960).
    • A.V. Bogdan, A Revised List of Kenya Grasses p. 62 (1958).
    • Jackson & Wiehe, Ann. list Nyasaland grasses: 65 (1958).
    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Sudan 3: 557 (1956).
    • Eggeling, Ann. list grasses Ug.: 48 (1947).
    • Robyns, Fl. Agrost. Congo Belge 1: 50 (1929).
    • Hubbard, E.A. Pasture Plants 1: 16 (1926).
    • Stapf in Flora of Tropical Africa 9: 41 (1917).
    • Griff., Not. 3, Index: 12 (1851).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/