1. Family: Haemodoraceae R.Br.
    1. Genus: Anigozanthos Labill.
      1. Anigozanthos flavidus Redouté

        Evergreen kangaroo paw is a striking and easily-grown perennial for frost-free or nearly frost-free climates, and some of its artificial hybrids provide good cut-flowers. Flowering stems are produced throughout the summer, from November to February in its native southwest Western Australia, where the flowers attract nectar-feeding birds and honey possums. The species is particularly suited to cultivation due to its natural resistance to disease and insect attack and there are many different coloured hybrid cultivars with Anigozanthos flavidus as one of the parents.

    [KSP]

    Kew Species Profiles

    General Description
    Evergreen kangaroo paw has a clump of narrow, iris-like leaves and branching stems. The masses of tubular, curved, densely-hairy flowers are usually yellow, but can be orange, red, pink or green.

    Evergreen kangaroo paw is a striking and easily-grown perennial for frost-free or nearly frost-free climates, and some of its artificial hybrids provide good cut-flowers. Flowering stems are produced throughout the summer, from November to February in its native southwest Western Australia, where the flowers attract nectar-feeding birds and honey possums. The species is particularly suited to cultivation due to its natural resistance to disease and insect attack and there are many different coloured hybrid cultivars with Anigozanthos flavidus as one of the parents.

    Species Profile
    Geography and distribution

    Native to the south-western corner of Western Australia, from Augusta in the east to Two Peoples Bay, and north to Waroona, although occurring as a localized invasive weed in the Kleinmond district of the Cape in the Republic of South Africa.

    Habitat

    A. flavidus has a preference for well-watered sandy loam and gravel and is usually associated with  Eucalyptus and  Melaleuca woodland or heath vegetation. It is a prolific seed producer and is a successful colonist of disturbed or burnt sandy soils.

    Botanical exploration of south-western Australia

    The genus Anigozanthos has 12 species, and in its native range is confined to the Southwest Australian Floristic Region (SWAFR), one of the biodiversity hot spots of the world. The history of botanical exploration in this region is discussed by Kew’s Director, Stephen D. Hopper, in a two-part article in Curtis’s Botanical Magazine: South-western Australia, Cinderella of the world’s temperate floristic regions.

    Description

    Overview:The rootstock of tall kangaroo paw is a short rhizome (underground stem) with tough roots, forming a large clump.

    Leaves:The leaves are mostly basal, narrow, linear, upright or arching, measuring up to 1 m long and up to 2-3 cm wide.

    Flowers:The flowering stems are up to 2 m long, branched, and covered with short hairs on their upper part. The flowers are clustered at the ends of the branches, and are 3-4.5 cm long, greenish-yellow, reddish, or, rarely, pink. The tubular flowers are densely covered in short hairs and have six pointed lobes. The style (female part) and stamens (male parts) are curved.

    Seeds:The seed capsules have three cells containing small seeds which are grayish-brown or black.

    Uses

    Tall kangaroo paw is grown as an ornamental for general garden use in frost-free climates.

    Millennium Seed Bank: Seed storage

    Kew's Millennium Seed Bank Partnership aims to save plant life world wide, focusing on plants under threat and those of most use in the future. Seeds are dried, packaged and stored at a sub-zero temperature in our seed bank vault.

    Description of seeds:Average 1,000 seed weight = 0.69 gNumber of seed collections stored in the Millennium Seed Bank:OneSeed storage behaviour:Orthodox? (the seeds of this plant survive drying without significant reduction in their viability, and are therefore amenable to long-term frozen storage such as at the MSB)

    Cultivation

    Anigozanthos flaviduswas introduced to cultivation in England from France in 1808, having been illustrated by the Belgian botanist Pierre-Joseph Redouté in Les Liliacées in 1807. It was probably grown from seed collected by the Nicolas Baudin expedition (from France to Australia in 1800-1803) and grown in the Empress Joséphine’s garden at Malmaison.

    The most easily grown species of kangaroo paw, A. flavidusis tolerant of seasonally wet soils, growing in clay soils or in sand. Though normally evergreen, it can re-sprout from the rhizome after drought or fire. Tall kangaroo paw generally flowers from November to February in Australia.

    Propagation is by seed, or by division of the rhizomes in autumn, when wishing to increase a particular clone. The plants will probably survive only a few degrees of overnight frost. Though tall kangaroo paw may grow in partial shade in the wild, in more northern areas it is best grown with as much winter sun as possible. It has been found to grow well in southern California.

    This species at Kew

    Pressed and dried specimens of Anigozanthos flavidus are held in the behind-the-scenes Herbarium at Kew, where they are made available to researchers from around the world, by appointment. The details, including an image, of one of these specimens can be seen online in the Herbarium Catalogue.

    View details and images of specimens online

    All species are also represented by samples in Kew’s DNA bank, housed at the Jodrell Laboratory.

    At Kew, A. flavidus and some of its hybrids can be seen planted in the Temperate House.

    Research into the genus Anigozanthosand the family Haemodoraceae has been carried out at Kew in a science project led by the former Director (CEO and Chief Scientist) Professor Stephen Hopper.

    Australia Landscape - Kew at the British Museum

    In 2011, Kew and the British Museum brought to the heart of London a landscape showcasing the rich biodiversity of Australia, and how these fragile systems are under threat from land usage and climate change.

    Anigozanthus flavidus(evergreen kangaroo paw) was one of 12 star plants featured in the Landscape, which took you on a journey across a whole continent, from eastern Australia’s coastal habitat, through the arid red centre, to the western Australian granite outcrop featuring unique and highly endangered plants.

    Australia Landscape was part of the Australian season at the British Museum. Supported by Rio Tinto.

    Distribution
    Australia
    Ecology
    High rainfall forested areas along with riverbanks, swamps and wet road verges. More information below.
    Conservation
    Not threatened, and well conserved in protected areas.
    Hazards

    The velvety hairs on the flowers can irritate the skin and eyes on contact.

    [KSP]
    Use
    Ornamental. Young rhizomes consumed by Wardandi Noongar Aboriginal people.

    Images

    Distribution

    Found In:

    Western Australia

    Common Names

    English
    Evergreen kangaroo paw

    Anigozanthos flavidus Redouté appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Identified Reference Herbarium Specimen Type Status
    Jun 14, 1967 s.coll. [s.n.], Australia K000846259

    First published in Liliac. 3: t. 176 (1807)

    Accepted in:

    • [3] Govaerts, R. (1995) World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 1-529. MIM, Deurne

    Literature

    • [1] Hopper, S.D. (2004). South-western Australia, Cinderella of the world’s temperate floristic regions, Part 2. Curtis’s Bot. Mag. 21 (2): 132-180
    • [2] Hopper, S.D. (2003). South-western Australia, Cinderella of the world’s temperate floristic regions, Part 1. Curtis’s Bot. Mag. 20 (2): 101-126
    • [4] Hopper, S.D. (1993). Kangaroo Paws and Catspaws. A Natural History and Field Guide. Department of Conservation and Land Managament, Perth.
    • [5] Hopper, S.D. (1987). Blancoa, Anigozanthos, Macropidia. Flora of Australia 45:110-128. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • [6] Elliot, W.D. & Jones, D.L. (1982). Encyclopedia of Australian Plants Suitable for Cultivation Volume 2. Lothian Publishing Co., Melbourne, Sydney, Auckland.

    Sources

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (2017). Published on the internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp
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