1. Family: Iridaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Crocus L.
      1. Crocus baytopiorum B.Mathew

        Turkey is home to a remarkable number of Crocus species and new ones are still being discovered.

    [KSP]
    General Description
    The stunning pale blue flowers of the Turkish Crocus baytopiorum make it one of the most distinctive Crocus species.

    Turkey is home to a remarkable number of Crocus species and new ones are still being discovered.

    Crocus baytopiorum was discovered in 1973 and was described by the Kew botanist Brian Mathew, and named after a Turkish botanist, Asuman Baytop, who first collected C. baytopiorum on the Turkish mountain of Honaz Dağ. It was initially thought to be restricted to this locality, but other sites in south-west Turkey have since been found.

    Species Profile

    Geography and distribution

    On Honaz Dağ, a mountain and national park near Denizli, and at other sites in south-west Turkey.

    Description

    The sky blue flowers, with delicate, slightly darker veining, together with the narrow leaves that are only 1.5 mm wide, help to distinguish this species and make it easy to recognise. The flowers have a perianth tube (sepals and petals) that can reach 9 cm long, with the perianth segments up to 3 cm long. The style (female part) is divided into three yellow or orange branches and the seeds are elongated and red.

    Crocus baytopiorum resembles four European spring flowering Crocusspecies, C. vernus, C. tommasinianus, C. etruscus and C. kosaninii, all in series Verni. But despite their similar appearance, recent molecular analysis of this genus concludes that C. baytopiorum should be placed in a series of its own, series Baytopi,characterised by the clear blue flowers, narrow leaves and the large, papery white bract that surrounds the perianth tube.

    Uses

    Crocus baytopiorum is cultivated as an ornamental.

    Cultivation

    The original collection by Baytop was made in February, when the plants were flowering, but in cultivation Crocus baytopiorum can flower in January or earlier. Appearing so early in the year, the flowers can be damaged by wind and rain. Also the perianth tube can be fairly long and thin and a shortage of sunny days can cause it to elongate further, with the result that the flower falls over.

    An amateur grower in Scotland, named L. Bezzant, reports that some plants flower extremely early, sometimes in December, and that these blooms are very frail and short-lived whereas those that flower later are much more robust. To reduce the risk of the flowers collapsing, the corms (a short underground swollen stem) can be given a free root run by planting directly into open soil, in a light, well-ventilated cold frame that is covered during adverse weather conditions. Pot-grown plants can also be housed in a cold frame or an alpine house.

    This species at Kew

    Crocus baytopiorum can be seen in the Davies Alpine House at Kew when in flower.

    Spirit-preserved specimens of Crocus baytopiorum are held in Kew’s Herbarium, where they are made available to researchers, by appointment. Thedetails of one of these specimens can be seen online in the Herbarium Catalogue.

    Distribution
    Turkey
    Ecology
    Limestone screes and in rocky gullies, in sparse pine (Pinus) and juniper (Juniperus) woodland.
    Conservation
    Not Evaluated (NE) according to IUCN Red List criteria.
    Hazards

    None known. Although some species of Crocus can be eaten, others can cause digestive upset if eaten.

    Images

    Distribution

    Crocus baytopiorum B.Mathew appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Identified Reference Herbarium Specimen Type Status
    Jan 1, 1973 Baytop, A. [s.n.], Turkey K000802544
    Jan 1, 1973 Baytop, A. [23781], Turkey K000802492
    Baytop, T. [23781], Turkey K000802491
    Baytop, T. [27,778] 35334.000

    First published in Kew Bull. 29: 88 (1974)

    Accepted in:

    • [3] Ruksans, J. (2010) Crocuses. A complete guide to the genus . Timber Press, Portland, London.
    • [7] Govaerts, R. (1999) World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    • [1] World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (2011).
    • [2] Beentje, H. (2010). The Kew Plant Glossary. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • [4] Wilford, R. (2010). Alpines from Mountain to Garden. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • [5] Mathew, B. Petersen, G. & Seberg, O. (2009). A reassessment of Crocus based on molecular analysis. Plantsman 8:50-57.
    • [6] Cooper, M.R., Johnson, A.W. & Dauncey, E.A. (2003). Poisonous Plants and Fungi: An Illustrated Guide. The Stationery Office, London.
    • [8] Bezzant, L. (1992). Crocus baytopiorum. J. Scott. Rock Gar. Club 22:422
    • [9] Mathew, B. (1982). The Crocus: a Revision of the Genus Crocus. B. T. Batsford Ltd., London.
    • [10] Mathew, B. (1974). Crocus baytopiorum. Curtis's Bot. Mag. 180(1):17-19 t. 664

    Sources

    International Plant Names Index
    The International Plant Names Index (2016). Published on the Internet http://www.ipni.org
    [A] © Copyright 2016 International Plant Names Index. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Species Profiles
    Kew Species Profiles
    [B] http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    [C]

    World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
    World Checklist of Selected Plant Families(2016). Published on the Internet http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    [D] See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    [E] © Copyright 2016 International Plant Names Index and World Checkist of Selected Plant Families. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0