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  1. Family: Lamiaceae Martinov
    1. Genus: Isodon (Schrad. ex Benth.) Spach
      1. Isodon ramosissimus (Hook.f.) Codd

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa.

    [FTEA]

    Lamiaceae (Labiatae), A.J. Paton, G. Bramley, O. Ryding, R.M. Polhill, Y.B. Harvey, M. Iwarsson, F. Willis, P.B. Phillipson, K. Balkwill, C.W. Lukhoba, D.F. Otieno, & R.M. Harley. Isodon, RM Polhill. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2009

    Type
    Type: Bioko, Clarence Peak, Mann 624 (K!, holo.)
    Habit
    Perennial herb, 0.6–2.5 m tall, hardly aromatic
    Stem
    Stems straggling to weakly erect, quadrangular, sulcate, pubescent to pilose with hairs of different lengths mostly along the angles, the larger ones septate, spreading to somewhat retrorse, some sometimes glandular or scabrid
    Leaves
    Leaves petiolate, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 3–8 × 2–5 cm, serrate-crenate, acute to acuminate at apex, cuneate to rounded at base, pubescent above, densely white hairy beneath and with sessile glands; petiole 2–20 mm long
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences very lax, open dichasial cymes, each with ± 10–24 small flowers; peduncle 1–3(–4) cm long; pedicels 4–6 mm long, spreading hairy; bracteoles linear, 1–2 mm long
    Calyx
    Calyx 2–3 mm long in flower, pilose, glandular, only slightly 2-lipped; fruiting calyx slightly curved and constricted at throat, 3.5–5 mm long; teeth triangular-acuminate, 0.7–1 mm long
    Corolla
    Corolla white, with purple spots at base of lobes of posterior lip and sometimes with crescent-shaped marks above these; tube 3.5–5 mm long, only slightly ventricose and narrowed to throat, not obviously saccate at base; lobes of posterior lip obovate, 1–2 mm long; anterior lip broadly ovate and slightly prolate, 2.5–3.5 mm long
    Fruits
    Nutlets brown, sometimes speckled darker, ovoidellipsoid, slightly trigonous, 1–1.2 × 0.8–1 mm, smooth, with a small white basal scar
    Figures
    Fig 20, p 131
    Ecology
    Forest undergrowth and margins, upland grassland, descending to lower altitudes along rivers; 750–2100 m
    Conservation
    Least concern; widely distributed
    Note
    Going south, however, a further problem arises. Material unambiguously attributable to I. ramosissimus extends from the Mahali Mts to the Southern Highlands of Tanzania and along the eastern arc as far as the Uluguru and Ukaguru Mts. Down the Rift and westwards from southern Burundi, through the Katanga, western Zambia, very southernmost Tanzania, Malawi, the eastern highlands of Zimbabwe and the Huila Plateau of Angola, the leaves of most but not quite all the material are distinctly scabrous and often rather bullate, quite often more lancolate-ovate than ovate, the size of the flowers tends to increase again to the upper end allowed for the species as defined here, and where there is good modern material from northern Malawi the extra banding on the posterior corolla lobes is again evident. The cymes have relatively few flowers, fairly consistent around 10 per cyme. Where the ranges overlap in Burundi and southern Tanzania the variation could be seen as ecotypic, the differences not very evident, and this southern form is seemingly more adapted to open habitats as the characters suggest. In West Africa some scabridity can be found sporadically. The names Plectranthus whytei, P. paniculatus and the illegitimate P. bullatus all apply, but the incipient divergence seems scarcely definable at taxonomic rank on present evidence. There has been considerable uncertainty as to whether to subdivide this species or not. Codd, loc. cit. (1984), considered that the variation in flower size and other features was continuous. Troupin & Ayobangira recognise only one species for the Flore du Rwanda (1985). Morton recognises I. schimperi as distinct for the Flora of Ethiopia, though noting that intermediates may occur. There is a reasonably good distinction between I. ramosissimus in West Africa and I. schimperi over the greater part of the Ethiopian highlands. The flowers of the latter are distinctly larger, the upper lobes of the posterior corolla lip with clear concentric marks above the basal purple spots (still visible on dried material, even on the type collected a hundred and forty years ago), the mature fruiting calyx also distinctly larger, the plants smaller and altogether less hairy (most notably so on the underside of the lamina), and the leaf base cordate rather than cuneate to rounded. In addition the leaves of I. schimperi tend to be more crenate than crenate-serrate, the point of the tooth facing outwards rather than obliquely forwards. I. ramosissimus extends east across the Kivu Province of Congo, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda and the Imatong Mts of southern Sudan to western Ethiopia. I. schimperi extends west through the Imatongs to the Albertine Rift, from Ruwenzori south to mountains in Burundi, generally but not always at higher altitudes. The few specimens of both species from the Imatong Mts look distinct. On the Albertine Rift, the differences in indumentum break down completely, but, making some allowance for the rather poor quality of some of the material, the difference in the size of the flowers and fruiting calyx seems to hold and the shape of the leaf base and crenation are at least indicative. It seems that any supposed intermediates are more due to trivial independent variation than to introgression.
    Distribution
    Range: Sierra Leone, Nigeria, Cameroon, Bioko, Equatorial Guinea, Congo-Kinshasa, Rwanda, Burundi, Sudan (Imatong Mts), Ethiopia, Angola, Zambia, Malawi, Zimbabwe Flora districts: U2 U3 U4 K3 K5 T4 T6 T7 T8
    [FWTA]

    Labiatae, J. K. Morton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Habit
    A straggling to erect herb, with sharply angled pilose stems up to 12 ft. long
    Inflorescences
    Copious glular-pubescent inflorescences of small white flowers with mauve marks in the throat of the corolla.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Burundi, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Gulf of Guinea Is., Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Isodon ramosissimus (Hook.f.) Codd appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jul 1, 2007 Tchiengue, B. [2231], Cameroon K000339760
    Jul 1, 2006 Thomson [s.n.], Tanzania K001067695 Unknown type material
    Jul 1, 2006 Whyte, A. [s.n.], Malawi K001067696 Unknown type material
    Jul 1, 2006 Whyte, A. [s.n.], Malawi K001067697
    Jul 1, 2006 Whyte, A. [s.n.], Malawi K001067698 Unknown type material
    Jul 1, 2006 Whyte, A. [s.n.], Malawi K001067699 Unknown type material
    Jul 1, 2006 Whyte, A. [s.n.], Malawi K001067700 Unknown type material
    Jul 1, 2006 Buchanan, J. [105], Malawi K001067701 Unknown type material
    Jul 1, 2006 Buchanan, J. [105], Malawi K001067702 Unknown type material
    Jul 1, 2006 Robyns, W. [2191], Congo, DRC K001067691 isotype
    Jul 1, 2006 Robyns, W. [2191], Congo, DRC K001067692 isotype
    Dec 1, 2003 Pollard, B.J. [467], Cameroon K000212655
    Dec 1, 2003 Biye, E. [136], Cameroon K000212646
    May 1, 2001 Cheek, M. [9055], Cameroon K000050890
    May 1, 2001 Etuge, M. [1521], Cameroon K000050889
    May 1, 2001 Pollard, B.J. [114], Cameroon K000050891
    May 1, 2001 Pollard, B.J. [149], Cameroon K000050892
    Dec 1, 2000 Etuge, M. [3375], Cameroon K000339229
    Jan 1, 1998 Mambo, P. [292], Cameroon K000025036
    Dec 1, 1997 Pollard, B.J. [262], Cameroon K000339231
    Dec 1, 1997 Munyenyembe, P. [897], Cameroon K000339228
    Dec 1, 1997 Buzgo, M. [750], Cameroon K000339230
    Jan 1, 1995 Etuge, M. [435], Cameroon K000025035
    Keay, R.W.J. [FHI 28367], Cameroon K000025028
    Keay, R.W.J. [FHI 28367], Cameroon K000025030
    Hepper, F.N. [1892], Cameroon K000025031
    Morton, J.K. [7099], Cameroon K000025020
    Akpabla, G.K. [10540], Cameroon K000025021
    Maitland, T.D. [0s.n.88], Cameroon K000025011
    Maitland, T.D. [0s.n.89], Cameroon K000025012
    Maitland, T.D. [111], Cameroon K000025013
    Maitland, T.D. [1727], Cameroon K000025014
    Maitland, T.D. [1727], Cameroon K000025015
    Boughey, A.S. [10700], Cameroon K000025022
    Boughey, A.S. [GC 11120], Cameroon K000025023
    Sanford, W.W. [5450], Cameroon K000025025
    Thomas, D.W. [2640], Cameroon K000025037
    Letouzey, R. [13125], Cameroon K000025032
    Breteler, F.J. [165], Cameroon K000025033
    Breteler, F.J. [144], Cameroon K000025034
    Johnston, H.H. [102], Cameroon K000025016
    Dunlap [213], Cameroon K000025017
    Dunlap [120], Cameroon K000025018
    Dunlap [57], Cameroon K000025019
    Migeod, F. W. H. [243], Cameroon K000025026
    Migeod, F. W. H. [243], Cameroon K000025027
    Milne-Redhead, E. [10274], Tanzania Plectranthus ramosissimus 27377.000

    Bibliography

    First published in Taxon 17: 239 (1968)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Paton, A.J., Bramley, G., Ryding, O., Polhill, R.M., Harvey, Y.B., Iwarsson, M., Otieno, D., Balkwill, K., Phillipson, P.B., Harley, R.M. & Willis, F. (2013). Flora Zambesiaca 8(8): 1-346. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Morales, R. (2011). Les Labiadas (Lamiaceae) de Guinea Ecuatorial Anales del Jardin Botanico de Madrid 68: 199-223.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Paton, A.J., Bramley, G., Ryding, O., Polhill, R., Harvey, Y., Iwarsson, M., Willis, F., Phillipson, P., Balkwill, K., Lukhoba, C., Otiend, D & Harley (2009). Lamiaceae (Labiatae) Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-430.
    • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Morales, R. (2011). Les Labiadas (Lamiaceae) de Guinea Ecuatorial Anales del Jardin Botanico de Madrid 68: 199-223.
    • Paton, A.J., Bramley, G., Ryding, O., Polhill, R., Harvey, Y., Iwarsson, M., Willis, F., Phillipson, P., Balkwill, K., Lukhoba, C., Otiend, D & Harley (2009). Lamiaceae (Labiatae) Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-430.

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Fl. Eth. 5: 565 (2006).
    • U.K.W.F. ed. 2: 294 (1994)
    • Fl. Rwanda 3: 312, fig. 99/2 (1985), pro parte
    • Bothalia 15: 8, fig. 1 (1984), excl. syn. Plectranthus schimperi
    • Taxon 17: 239 (1968)

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0