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  1. Family: Acanthaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Crossandra Salisb.
      1. Crossandra nilotica Oliv.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Eritrea to S. Tropical Africa.

    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca Acanthaceae (part 2) by Iain Darbyshire, Kaj Vollesen and Ensermu Kelbessa

    Habit
    Shrubby herb to 0.5 m; cystoliths absent.
    Leaves
    Leaves dark green, glossy, ovate to elliptic, to 10 × 5 cm; apex acute to acuminate; base decurrent.
    Flowers
    Flowers in dense terminal pedunculate racemoid cymes to 5 cm long; bracts large, pale green, ovate to elliptic, to 2.5 cm long; bracteoles linear-lanceolate, to 1 cm long.
    Calyx
    Calyx divided into 5 unequal sepals, thickened and horny at base, dorsal 2-veined and 2-toothed, ventral and lateral smaller, 1-veined and 1-toothed, to 1 cm long.
    Corolla
    Corolla bright red, to 5 cm long, split dorsally to give a 5-lobed lower lip and no upper lip.
    Stamens
    Stamens 4, sessile, included in corolla tube; anthers monothecous, rounded to finely apiculate.
    Distribution
    Native of eastern tropical Africa. Occasionally cultivated in the tropics and also grown as a pot plant in Europe and the USA.
    [FTEA]

    Acanthaceae (part 2), Kaj Vollesen. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2008

    Type
    Types: Uganda, West Nile District: Madi, Grant 685 (K!, lecto.); Tanzania, Biharamulo District: Usui, Grant 135 (K!, syn.)
    Habit
    Erect or straggling to scrambling perennial or shrubby herb to 1.5 m tall; young stems glabrous to sericeous-puberulous
    Leaves
    Leaves in whorls of 4; sessile or petiole up to 1.5(–4) cm long; lamina ovate to elliptic, largest 6.5–18(–23) × 2–7 cm, apex subacuminate to acute (rarely rounded), the actual tip rounded, subglabrous to puberulous (rarely pubescent), densest on veins
    Inflorescences
    Spikes 2–8.5 cm long; peduncles 2–18 cm long, puberulous or sparsely so (rarely pubescent); fertile bracts ovate to elliptic or broadly so (rarely obovate or narrowly ovate), 12–33 × 4–16 mm, length/width-ratio 1.3–2.2(–3), narrowing gradually to an acute tip with a straight mucro up to 0.5 mm long, finely puberulous or sparsely so and with usually dense stalked capitate glands, ciliate on edges (sometimes also on veins) from long manycelled hairs, with 3–5 longitudinal veins and raised reticulum; bracteoles 8–18 mm long, finely puberulous, with long capitate glands, ciliate
    Calyx
    Sepals acuminate to cuspidate, finely puberulous and with sparse to dense capitate glands towards tip, dorsal broadly elliptic, 8–17 mm long, ventral ovate-elliptic, 8–17 mm long, lateral 6–14 mm long
    Corolla
    Corolla light red to bright red or scarlet (? sometimes orange); tube 20–32 mm long, straight, not infundibuliform apically; limb 10–16 mm long
    Fruits
    Capsule ± 14 mm long
    Seeds
    Seed ± 3 × 3 mm.
    Ecology
    Dry forest, riverine forest, secondary forest, riverine scrub, termite mounds, shaded places in woodland and wooded grassland; 750–1550 m
    Note
    The description of a 4-lobed calyx with 2 large and 2 small decussate lobes and 2 stamens plus 2 staminodes clearly indicates that Barleria rhynchocarpa is a true Barleria, and that it was erroneously synonymised by Clarke (l.c.). This mistake unfortunately led Cufodontis to publish the combination Crossandra rhynchocarpa. Napper (l.c.) has explained the intricate synonymy of C. nilotica in detail. There are gradual morphological changes from south to north in the distribution area. Southern plants (Tanzania, Angola, Zambia) have wide bracts (length/width-ratio 1.3–2(–2.2)) and long sepals (12–17 mm), while northern plants (Sudan, Ethiopia) have narrow bracts (length/width-ratio 1.7–3) and short sepals (8–13 mm). But the variation is quite gradual with most Ugandan material falling in between, and there is no justification for maintaining subsp. acuminata for the northern form. The lectotype of C. nilotica from N Uganda has sepals 13 mm long and bracts exactly twice as long as wide. The corresponding measurements for the lectotype of subsp. acuminata are exactly the same.
    Distribution
    Flora districts: T1 T2 T3 T4 K2 T1 T4 Range: Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Congo-Kinshasa, Rwanda, Burundi, Angola, Zambia, Malawi

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Burundi, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Crossandra nilotica Oliv. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    May 1, 2007 Mwangoka, M.A. [4248], Tanzania K000438400
    May 1, 2007 Mwangoka, M.A. [4055], Tanzania K000438401
    Jan 1, 1987 Schweinfurth, G. [303], Eritrea K000394660 lectotype
    Ash [151], Ethiopia 51056.000
    Speke [685], Uganda K000394649 lectotype
    Speke [135], Uganda K000394650 syntype

    Bibliography

    First published in Trans. Linn. Soc. London 29: 128 (1875)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Vollesen, K. (2013). Flora Zambesiaca 8(5): 1-184. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
    • Vollesen, K. (2008). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Acanthaceae(1): 1-285.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca

    • —Vollesen in F.T.E.A., Acanthaceae 1: 139 (2008).

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • F.E.E. 5: 364 (2006).
    • Biol. Skr. 51(2): 440 (2005)
    • Lebrun & Stork, Enum. Pl. Afr. Trop. 4: 476 (1997)
    • K.B. 45: 121 & 508 (1990)
    • Fl. Rwanda 3: 450 (1985)
    • K.B. 24: 338 (1970)
    • F.P.N.A. 2: 294 (1947)
    • Pl. Beq. 4: 28 (1926)
    • De Wild., Contrib. Fl. Katanga 1: 202 (1921)
    • F.T.A. 5: 115 (1899), excl. syn.
    • P.O.A. C: 370 (1895)
    • Trans. Linn. Soc. 29: 128, t. 85 (1875)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0