1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Genus: Cassia L.
      1. Cassia afrofistula Brenan

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Kenya to Mozambique, NE. Madagascar.

    [ILDIS]

    International Legume Database and Information Service

    Conservation
    Not Threatened
    Ecology
    Africa: Zanzibar-Inhambane regional transition zone; bushland and thicket.
    Habit
    Perennial, Not climbing, Shrub/Tree
    Vernacular
    Tsiambaravatsy
    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Shrub or small tree 1.2–6 m. high (? more).
    Branches
    Young branchlets minutely puberulous (in East Africa), soon glabrous.
    Leaves
    Leaves with petiole and rhachis eglandular, the latter 7–25 cm. long. Leaflets in 4–9 pairs, petiolulate, ovate to ovate-elliptic, 2–10 cm. long, (1–)1.5–5.2 cm. wide, obtuse or subacute at apex, in Flora area glabrous except at extreme base.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a usually erect large pyramidal terminal panicle up to 30–40 cm. long or more, composed of terminal and lateral racemes (8–)15–38 cm. long.
    Bracts
    Bracts all falling while the flower-buds are young, 4–8 mm. long.
    Corolla
    Petals bright yellow, 1.5–3 cm. long, 1–2 cm. wide.
    Stamens
    Stamens 10; filaments of 3 lower each with an S-bend near base and an abrupt conspicuous swelling a little more than half-way along their length.
    Fruits
    Pods subcylindrical or very slightly compressed, usually ± attenuate at base and apex, 20–60 cm. long, 1–1.5 cm. in diameter, glabrous, blackish-brown, transversely but not longitudinally partitioned within.
    Seeds
    Seeds embedded in pulp, brown or blackish-brown, 6–8 mm. in diameter, 4 mm. thick.
    Figures
    Fig. 11, p. 63.
    Habitat
    Probably coastal evergreen bushland; common in the dry coral areas of Zanzibar and Pemba (U.O.P.Z.: 175); 0–90 m.
    Distribution
    K1 K7 P T3 T6 T8 Z
    [FZ]

    Leguminosae, R.K. Brummitt, A.C. Chikuni, J.M. Lock and R.M. Polhill. Flora Zambesiaca 3:2. 2007

    Habit
    Shrub or small tree, 1–4(6) m tall.
    Branches
    Branchlets brown, longitudinally ridged, glabrous.
    Leaves
    Leaves paripinnate; stipules not seen, probably very early caducous; petiole 1.9–8.5 cm long, glabrous; rachis 9–19 cm long, glabrous; petiolules 2–4 mm long; leaflets opposite to subopposite, in 5–6(8) pairs, 2.5–7.2 × 1.6–3.4 cm, ovate to broadly ovate, somewhat asymmetric, apex acute to rounded, base asymmetrically cuneate, glabrous above, glabrous to sparsely pubescent beneath; venation slightly prominent on both surfaces.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences of axillary and terminal racemes, held erect or horizontally, often branched; axis glabrous or pubescent; bracts c.6 × 1 mm, linear, puberulous; bracteoles c.2 × 0.5 mm, linear, puberulous; bracts and bracteoles falling well before anthesis; pedicels 2.5–4 cm long.
    Calyx
    Calyx lobes 5, 9–11 × 4–6 mm, ovate to elliptic, sparsely appressed-pubescent outside, glabrous inside.
    Corolla
    Petals yellow, 16–20 × 10–14 mm including a 2 mm long claw, obovate-elliptic.
    Stamens
    Stamens 10; filaments glabrous, anthers pubescent, 3 stamens with filaments c.16 mm long, sigmoidally curved in the lower third, abruptly swollen above the middle, anthers c.4 mm long; 4 with straight filaments 6–7 mm long, anthers c.4 mm long; 3 with filaments either straight or helically coiled towards the apex, anthers c.1.5 mm long.
    Pistil
    Ovary 16–24 × 1–1.5 mm, linear, pubescent, multiovulate; stigmatic chamber lateral, fringed with hairs.
    Fruits
    Pod blackish, 40–44 × 1–1.2 cm, cylindrical, terete, many-seeded; pod wall easily crushed between finger and thumb.
    Seeds
    Seed dark brown, shiny, c.6 × 6 × 3 mm, almost circular, flattened, enclosed in pulp.

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique, Tanzania

    Introduced into:

    Zimbabwe

    Cassia afrofistula Brenan appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Kew Bull. 13: 236 (1958)

    Accepted by

    • Brummitt, R.K., Chikuni, A.C., Lock, J.M. & Polhill, R.M. (2007). 61. Leguminosae Subfamily Caesalpinioideae Flora Zambesiaca 3(2): 1-218. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Du Puy, D.J., Labat, N.-N., Rabevohitra, R., Villiers, J.-F., Bosser, J. & Moat, J. (2002). The Leguminosae of Madagascar: 1-737. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
    • Lock, J.M. (1989). Legumes of Africa a check-list: 1-619. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Du Puy, D.J., Labat, N.-N., Rabevohitra, R., Villiers, J.-F., Bosser, J. & Moat, J. (2002). The Leguminosae of Madagascar: 1-737. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lock, J.M. (1989). Legumes of Africa a check-list: 1-619. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 101 (1961).
    • Brenan in Kew Bulletin 13: 236 (1958).
    International Legume Database and Information Service
    • Du Puy, D. J. et al. (2002). The Leguminosae of Madagascar. RBG Kew.
    • Brenan, J. P. M. (1969). Hookers Ic. Pl. ser. 5, 7:tt. 3658-60. Cassia bur., thyr., afrofi
    • Brenan, J. P. M. (1967). Caesalp. In: Flora Trop. East Africa. Milne-Redhead & Polhill

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    International Legume Database and Information Service
    International Legume Database and Information Service (ILDIS) V10.39 Nov 2011
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0