1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Genus: Crotalaria L.
      1. Crotalaria laburnifolia L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, Tropical Asia, N. Australia.

    [FZ]

    Leguminosae, various authors. Flora Zambesiaca 3:7. 2003

    Habit
    Erect scarcely woody bushy herb, 0.6–2 m tall, with glabrous or thinly pubescent branches.
    Leaves
    Leaves 3-foliolate, estipulate; leaflets variable, 1–10.5 × 0.5–5.5 cm, narrowly oblong to elliptic or elliptic-obovate, bluntly pointed to rounded or retuse at apex, glabrous or pubescent; petiole usually longer than leaflets.
    Inflorescences
    Racemes lax, usually many-flowered; bracts up to 4 mm long, linear or subulate; bracteoles small.
    Calyx
    Calyx plus funnel-shaped hypanthium 1.2–1.7 cm long, glabrous to sparsely puberulous; lobes attenuate-triangular, longer than the tube.
    Corolla
    Standard ovate, yellow, often marked red-brown outside; wings little over half to three quarters length of keel; keel 2–3 cm long, strongly rounded, ± straight along upper margin, abruptly contracted into a subtruncate upwardly directed beak, often flecked or flushed maroon.
    Fruits
    Pod including the 1.7–9.5 cm long stipe up to 4.5–15 cm long, oblong-clavate to subcylindrical, glabrous, often mottled when young.
    Seeds
    Seeds 4–5 mm long, oblique-cordiform, granulate, ochre or brown.
    [ILDIS]

    International Legume Database and Information Service

    Conservation
    Not Threatened
    Ecology
    Africa: Sudanian bushland and thicket, Somalia-Masai bushland and thicket, Zambezian bushland and thicket
    Habit
    Annual/Perennial, Not climbing, Herb/Shrub
    Vernacular
    Birdflower, Muna, Yak-Beringa
    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Erect perennial bushy herb, scarcely woody, up to 6–20 dm. tall.
    Branches
    Branches glabrous to thinly appressed puberulous.
    Leaves
    Leaves 3—foliolate; leaflets variable, narrowly oblong to elliptic or elliptic-obovate, up to 10–105 mm. long, 4–55 mm. wide, bluntly pointed to rounded or emarginate at the apex, glabrous or puberulous on the lower or both surfaces; petiole constricted at the base, up to 10–125 mm. long.
    Stipules
    Stipules absent.
    Inflorescences
    Racemes lax, up to 3–33(–50) cm. long, with few to generally numerous flowers; bracts subulate, up to 4 mm. long, rather persistent; bracteoles inserted near the middle of the pedicel, filiform, up to 2 mm. long; calyx 12–17 mm. long, basally narrowed into a prominent receptacle, glabrous or sparsely puberulous; upper and lateral lobes on either side often slightly cohering in the young flowers, becoming free (except sometimes at the very tip) in the mature flowers, narrowly triangular, longer than the tube.
    Corolla
    Standard ovate, yellow, often marked red-brown and glabrous outside; wings a little over half to three-fourths as long as the keel; keel strongly rounded, with a well-developed straight truncate upwardly directed untwisted beak, (19–)22–30 mm. long, often flecked or flushed maroon or reddish-brown.
    Fruits
    Pod oblong-clavate to subcylindrical, narrowed or abruptly contracted into the slender 1·7–9·5 cm. long stipe, ± 4·5–15 cm. long, 1–1·3 cm. across, glabrous, often mottled maroon or reddish-brown, ± 16–42-seeded.
    Seeds
    Seeds oblique-cordiform, 4–5 mm. long, obscurely and sparsely papillose, ochre or brown.
    Distribution
    K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 eastern Africa from Somali Republic (N.) and Sudan south to the Transvaal and west to the eastern Congo, also Mascarene Is., India and Ceylon to NE. Australia

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Assam, Bangladesh, Botswana, Burundi, Caprivi Strip, Chad, East Himalaya, Ethiopia, India, Jawa, Kenya, Lesser Sunda Is., Malawi, Malaya, Mozambique, Northern Provinces, Queensland, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Western Australia

    Common Names

    English
    Bushveld crotalaria, Rattle pod

    Crotalaria laburnifolia L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Oct 1, 1964 Bally, P.R.O. [6930], Kenya K000058388
    Oct 1, 1964 Bogdan, A. [1479], Kenya K000058387
    Oct 1, 1964 Verdcourt, B. [1828], Kenya K000058386
    Greenway, P.J. [9172], Kenya K000058385
    Gillett, J.B. [13115], Kenya K000058369
    Tweedie, E.M. [1850A], Kenya 4963.000
    Lucas, G.L.L. [222], Kenya K000058391
    Verdcourt, B. [3624], Kenya K000058376
    s.coll. [1782], Sri Lanka K000591111
    s.coll. [1700], Sri Lanka K000591110
    Cunningham, A. [235], Australia K000217269
    Mueller, F. von [s.n.], Australia K000217270
    MacGillivray, J. [s.n.], Australia K000217271
    leg. ign. [s.n.], Australia K000217268
    Samuel, S.P. [3004], Kenya K000058394
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5424] K001120863
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5424] K001120864
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5424] K001120865
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5424] K001120866
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5424] K001120867
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5424] K001120868

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 715 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Balslav, H. & Chantaranothai, P. (2018). Flora of Thailand 4(3.1): 221-371. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lepschi, B. & Monro, A. (Project Coordinators) (2014). Australian Plant Census (APC) Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria. http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/index.html.
    • Sarmah, K.K. & Borthakur, S.K. (2009). A checklist of angiospermic plants of Manas national park in Assam, India Pleione 3: 190-200.
    • Lock, J.M. & Ford, C.S. (2004). Legumes of Malesia a Check-List: 1-295. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Pope, G.V., Polhill, R.N. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2003). Flora Zambesiaca 3(7): 1-274. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Kumar, S. & Sane, P.V. (2003). Legumes of South Asia. A Checklist: 1-536. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
    • Lock, J.M. & Heald, J. (1994). Legumes of Indo-China a checck-list: 1-164. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lock, J.M. (1989). Legumes of Africa a check-list: 1-619. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Lepschi, B. & Monro, A. (Project Coordinators) (2014). Australian Plant Census (APC) Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria. http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/index.html.
    • Sarmah, K.K. & Borthakur, S.K. (2009). A checklist of angiospermic plants of Manas national park in Assam, India Pleione 3: 190-200.
    • Lock, J.M. & Ford, C.S. (2004). Legumes of Malesia a Check-List: 1-295. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Pope, G.V., Polhill, R.N. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2003). Flora Zambesiaca 3(7): 1-274. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Kumar, S. & Sane, P.V. (2003). Legumes of South Asia. A Checklist: 1-536. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lock, J.M. & Heald, J. (1994). Legumes of Indo-China a checck-list: 1-164. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lock, J.M. (1989). Legumes of Africa a check-list: 1-619. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Polhill in Kew Bulletin 22: 209 (1968).
    • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 359 (1961).
    • Wilczek in Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, 4: 227 (1953).
    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 2: 185 (1952).
    • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 415 (1949).
    • Verdoorn in Bothalia 2: 390 (1928), pro parte.
    • Bak. f. in Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Botany 42: 318 (1914).
    • Taub. in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C: 206 (1895).
    • DC., Prodr. 2: 130 (1825).
    • L., Sp. PI.: 715 (1753).
    International Legume Database and Information Service
    • Kumar, S. & Sane PV (2003). Legumes of South Asia: a check-list. RBG Kew.
    • Rudd, V. E. (1991). A Revised Handbook of the Flora of Ceylon 7: 108-381.
    • Hacker, J. B. (1990). A Guide to Herbaceous and Shrub Legumes of Queensland.
    • Robertson, S. A. (1989). Flowering Plants of Seychelles. Kew
    • Ambasta, S. P. (1986). The useful plants of India
    • Polhill, R. M. (1982). A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam 389pp Crotalaria in Africa & Madagasca
    • Niyomdham, C. (1978). Thai Forest Bulletin (Bot.) 11:105-181 Crotalaria in Thailand
    • Niyomdham, C. (1978). Thai Forest Bulletin (Botany) 11:105-181. A rev....
    • Ridley, H. N. (1922). Flora of the Malay Peninsula Vol I
    • Bojer, W. (1837). Hortus Mauritianus ou Enumeration des Plants... l'ile Maurice

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    International Legume Database and Information Service
    International Legume Database and Information Service (ILDIS) V10.39 Nov 2011
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/