1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Genus: Crotalaria L.
      1. Crotalaria trichotoma Bojer

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tanzania to S. Tropical Africa.

    [FZ]

    Leguminosae, various authors. Flora Zambesiaca 3:7. 2003

    Habit
    Erect annual or short-lived perennial, up to 0.7–2.7 m tall, well branched at least above; branches ribbed, appressed puberulous.
    Leaves
    Leaves 3-foliolate, estipulate; leaflets mostly (4.5)6–14 × 1–4 cm, lanceolate to elliptic-oblong, lower ones sometimes elliptic, appressed puberulous beneath, rarely also above; petioles shorter than the leaflets.
    Inflorescences
    Racemes up to 30–40 cm long, many-flowered; bracts (1)2–4 mm long, linear-caudate; bracteoles inserted at the base of the calyx or immediately below, slightly smaller than the bract.
    Calyx
    Calyx 4–6 mm long, becoming basally truncate and deflexed against the pedicel, glabrous or rather thinly appressed puberulous; lobes generally reduced to small widely spaced subulate teeth.
    Corolla
    Standard elliptic to obovate-elliptic, yellow, veined reddish-purple outside; wings ± as long as the keel, with a dark mark at the base; keel 1.2–1.4 cm long, shortly rounded about the middle, with a sharp slightly incurved beak.
    Fruits
    Pod (3.2)3.5–4.5 × 0.7–1.2 cm, shortly stipitate, subcylindrical, appressed puberulous, 50–70-seeded.
    Seeds
    Seeds 2.2–2.8 mm long, oblique-cordiform, smooth, orange-buff or terra-cotta.
    [ILDIS]

    International Legume Database and Information Service

    Conservation
    Not Threatened
    Ecology
    Africa: Zanzibar-Inhambane regional transition zone; grassland., Zambezian grassland, Cultivated
    Habit
    Annual/Perennial, Not climbing, Herb
    Vernacular
    Ahimatavy, Cascavelle Trois Feuilles, Marofolehana, Sonnette, Tcha-tcha
    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Erect annual or short-lived perennial, up to 7–27 dm. tall, well branched at least above.
    Stem
    Stem ribbed, appressed puberulous.
    Leaves
    Leaves 3-foliolate; leaflets lanceolate to elliptic-oblong, up to 60–105 mm. long, 10–40 mm. wide, glabrous or rarely puberulous above, appressed puberulous beneath; petiole ± 25–45 mm. long.
    Stipules
    Stipules absent.
    Inflorescences
    Racemes up to 30–40 cm. long, with many rather closely arranged flowers; bracts linear-caudate, (1–)2–4 mm. long; bracteoles inserted at the base of the calyx or rarely on the upper part of the pedicel, linear, up to 1–1·5(–2·5) mm. long.
    Calyx
    Calyx becoming truncate at the base and deflexed against the pedicel, 4–6 mm. long, glabrous or rather thinly appressed puberulous; lobes generally reduced to small widely spaced subulate teeth, much shorter than the tube.
    Corolla
    Standard obovate-elliptic or suborbicular, yellow, veined reddish-purple and glabrous outside; wings a little shorter to a little longer than the keel, with a dark mark at the base; keel shortly rounded about the middle, with a slightly incurved sharp untwisted beak, 12–13 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Pod shortly stipitate, subcylindrical, up to (32–)35–45 mm. long, 7–11 mm. across, appressed puberulous, ± 50–70-seeded.
    Seeds
    Seeds oblique-cordiform, ± 2·2–2·8 mm. long, smooth, orange-buff or terracotta.
    Figures
    Fig. 126, p. 912.
    Habitat
    Clearings in rain-forest and bushland, Brachystegia woodland, upland, swamp and valley grasslands, also persisting on roadsides and cultivated ground; 0–1800 m.
    Distribution
    T3 T6 T7 T8 Z and locally widespread as an escape from cultivation

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Tanzania

    Introduced into:

    Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Brazil Southeast, Burkina, Cameroon, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Congo, Dominican Republic, Florida, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Honduras, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jawa, Kenya, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malaya, Mauritius, New Guinea, New South Wales, Peru, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Réunion, Senegal, Seychelles, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, Windward Is.

    Crotalaria trichotoma Bojer appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1984 Bojer [s.n.], Mauritius K000227294 neotype
    Tanzania Crotalaria zanzibarica K000412617 Unknown type material
    Eiten, G. [5622], Brazil Crotalaria zanzibarica K000893471

    First published in Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., sér. 2, 4: 265 (1835)

    Accepted by

    • Balslav, H. & Chantaranothai, P. (2018). Flora of Thailand 4(3.1): 221-371. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
    • Silva Flores, A. & De Azevedo Tozzi, A.M.G. (2018). A synopsis of the genus Crotalaria (Leguminosae) in Brazil Phytotaxa 346: 31-58.
    • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
    • Lepschi, B. & Monro, A. (Project Coordinators) (2014). Australian Plant Census (APC) Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria. http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/index.html.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P. (eds.) in Flora of China Editorial Committee (2010). Flora of China 10: 1-642. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Lock, J.M. & Ford, C.S. (2004). Legumes of Malesia a Check-List: 1-295. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Pope, G.V., Polhill, R.N. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2003). Flora Zambesiaca 3(7): 1-274. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kumar, S. & Sane, P.V. (2003). Legumes of South Asia. A Checklist: 1-536. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Du Puy, D.J., Labat, N.-N., Rabevohitra, R., Villiers, J.-F., Bosser, J. & Moat, J. (2002). The Leguminosae of Madagascar: 1-737. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
    • Isely, D. (1998). Native and Naturalized Leguminosae (Fabaceae) of the United States: 1-1007. Monte L. Bean Life Science Museum. Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah.
    • Lock, J.M. & Heald, J. (1994). Legumes of Indo-China a checck-list: 1-164. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Polhill, R.M. (1990). Flore des Mascareignes 80: 1-235. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
    • Lepschi, B. & Monro, A. (Project Coordinators) (2014). Australian Plant Census (APC) Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria. http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/index.html.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Shou, H.Y., Yan, X.L. & Ma, J.S. (2012). Nomenclatural notes on alien invasive vascular plants in China (2) Plant Diversity and Resources 34: 347-353.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Lock, J.M. & Ford, C.S. (2004). Legumes of Malesia a Check-List: 1-295. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Pope, G.V., Polhill, R.N. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2003). Flora Zambesiaca 3(7): 1-274. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Du Puy, D.J., Labat, N.-N., Rabevohitra, R., Villiers, J.-F., Bosser, J. & Moat, J. (2002). The Leguminosae of Madagascar: 1-737. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Isely, D. (1998). Native and Naturalized Leguminosae (Fabaceae) of the United States: 1-1007. Monte L. Bean Life Science Museum. Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Polhill, R.M. (1990). Flore des Mascareignes 80: 1-235. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Lock, J.M. (1989). Legumes of Africa a check-list: 1-619. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Berhaut, J. (1976). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 5: 1-658. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
    International Legume Database and Information Service
    • Du Puy, D. J. et al. (2002). The Leguminosae of Madagascar. RBG Kew.
    • Rudd, V. E. (1991). A Revised Handbook of the Flora of Ceylon 7: 108-381.
    • Polhill, R, M. (1990). Legumineuses. In: Flore des Mascareignes, Vol 80. J. Bosser et a
    • Robertson, S. A. (1989). Flowering Plants of Seychelles. Kew
    • Ambasta, S. P. (1986). The useful plants of India
    • Polhill, R. M. (1982). A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam 389pp Crotalaria in Africa & Madagasca
    • Verdcourt, B. (1979). A Manual of New Guinea Legumes. Office of Forests, Lae, PNG
    • Fournet, J. (1978). Flore illustree des phanerogames de Guadeloupe & Martinique
    • Backer, C. A. (1963). Flora of Java. Groningen, The Netherlands

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    International Legume Database and Information Service
    International Legume Database and Information Service (ILDIS) V10.39 Nov 2011
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0