1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Genus: Guibourtia Benn.
      1. Guibourtia ehie (A.Chev.) J.Léonard

        Black hyedua is a West African timber tree, common in its natural habitat where it generally grows in small stands in a variety of forest types, from closed rainforest to drier semi-deciduous forest. The papery pods contain a single seed and are dispersed intact, mainly by wind. The thin pod walls soon rot away on the ground leaving the seed free to germinate.

    [KSP]

    Kew Species Profiles

    General Description
    A tall forest tree from west Central Africa, black hyedua is valued for its timber, which is used in general carpentry in Ghana as a substitute for rosewood ( Dalbergia spp.)

    Black hyedua is a West African timber tree, common in its natural habitat where it generally grows in small stands in a variety of forest types, from closed rainforest to drier semi-deciduous forest. The papery pods contain a single seed and are dispersed intact, mainly by wind. The thin pod walls soon rot away on the ground leaving the seed free to germinate.

    Species Profile
    Geography and distribution

    Guibourtia ehiegrows in African lowland forest. It occurs in the upper Guinea forest block, in Côte d'Ivoire, Liberia and Ghana, is absent from the more arid and unforested Dahomey interval and then reappears in the lower Guinea forest block in Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea and Gabon.

    Description

    Overview:  Guibourtia ehie is a forest tree up to 45 m high with a trunk up to 1 m in diameter.

    Leaves: The leaves are composed of two asymmetrical leaflets, each shaped like a half-moon. The outer side of each leaflet is at least three times as broad as the inner side, ending in a long, curved tip.

    Flowers: The white flowers are scented and arranged along short axes, which in turn are combined with other flowering ‘spikes’ to form a branched flowering structure, which measures up to 25 cm long.

    Fruits: The fruits (pods) are flat and papery, and their surfaces are covered with a network of fine veins. Each fruit contains a single seed.

    Some species of Guibourtiahave resin in the leaves that appears as translucent yellow dots when the leaves are held to the light and/or seeds that bear an aril (a soft, fleshy and often colourful layer covering part or all of the external seed surface), but G. ehie has neither gland dots nor arils.

    Study of the genus by Kew botanist

    The leguminous genus Guibourtiais currently considered to comprise 14 species. Thirteen occur in tropical Africa, but G. hymenaeifolia is found only in the Neotropics. A group of organisms that are found on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean are said to have an amphi-Atlantic distribution. This distribution pattern is relatively unusual in legume tree genera and there has been some doubt as to whether the Neotropical and African Guibourtiaspecies belong together.

    To explore this and other questions, Guibourtiais currently the subject of an MSc study by Kew botanist Frances Crawford (supervised by Reading University). Frances is using morphological and genetic (DNA) data to investigate the genus. Preliminary results indicate that the neotropical species is a true Guibourtia that arrived in the Neotropics from Africa by long distance dispersal.

    Threats and conservation

    Black hyedua is widespread in West Africa and several populations are known to occur within protected areas but its exploitation for timber could result in population decline. Based only on geographical range data from herbarium specimens, Guibourtia ehie is considered to be of Least Concern according to IUCN red list criteria (IUCN 2001).

    However, it was previously assessed as Vulnerable (as a result of an assessment arising from an African regional workshop in 1996), and further research and fieldwork are required to verify its true conservation status.

    Conservation assessments carried out by Kew

    Guibortia ehieis being monitored as part of the 'Sampled Red List Index Project', which aims to produce conservation assessments for a representative sample of the world’s plant species. This information will then be used to monitor trends in extinction risk and help focus conservation efforts where they are needed most.

    Uses

    Guibourtia ehie is mainly used for timber production, which is a popular substitute for rosewood ( Dalbergiaspecies). It is used for fine furniture and cabinetwork, turnery, decorative veneers and flooring.

    The bark exudes a gum if cut, but fresh gum is not produced in commercial quantities. However, ‘fossil’ resin (copal) is collected from the ground in parts of West Africa and made into sweet-smelling necklaces by local traders. In Nigeria, this resin is burnt for lighting.

    This species at Kew

    Pressed and dried specimens of Guibourtia ehie are held in Kew’s Herbarium, where they are available to researchers from around the world by appointment. The details, including an image (pictured above), of one of these specimens can be seen online in the Herbarium Catalogue.

    Specimens of the wood and bark of black hyedua are held in Kew’s Economic Botany Collection, available to researchers by appointment.

    Distribution
    Cameroon, Gabon, Ghana
    Ecology
    Various forest types, from closed rainforest to drier semi-deciduous forest.
    Conservation
    Least Concern (LC) according to IUCN Red List criteria.
    Hazards

    None known.

    [FWTA]

    Caesalpiniaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

    Habit
    Forest tree, to 150 ft. high
    Trunk
    Buttresses and straight bole
    Flowers
    Flowers white, scented.
    [KSP]
    Use
    Necklaces (made from copal, the fossil resin produced by the tree, see Uses, below), lighting (copal is flammable), timber.

    Images

    Distribution

    Found In:

    Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Nigeria

    Common Names

    English
    Black hyedua

    Guibourtia ehie (A.Chev.) J.Léonard appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Identified Reference Herbarium Specimen Type Status
    Apr 20, 1964 Punch, C. [s.n.], Nigeria K000623007
    Oct 1, 1950 Le Testu, M.G. [5097], Gabon K000623005
    Mar 1, 1949 Chevalier, A. [22447], Ivory Coast K000417931 Unknown type material
    Vigne, C. [4916], Ghana K000387209
    Adam, J.G. [20357], Liberia K000623006
    Catterall [73], Nigeria K000623008
    Latilo, M.G. [30985], Nigeria K000623009

    First published in Bull. Jard. Bot. État Bruxelles 19: 404 (1949)

    Accepted in:

    • [2] (2009) Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517
    • [4] Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005) Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo , ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville
    • [5] Govaerts, R. (2003) World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS G: 1-40325
    • [7] Lock, J.M. (1989) Legumes of Africa a check-list . Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

    Literature

    • [1] Contu, S. (2010). Guibourtia ehie. Assessment using IUCN Categories and Criteria 3.1 (IUCN 2001). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • [3] Lewis, G., Schrire, B., Mackinder, B. & Lock, J.M. (eds) (2005). Legumes of the World. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • [6] Burkill, H.M. (1995). The Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa: Vol. 3 Families J – L: 129. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • [8] Publ. I.N.É.A.C., Ser. Sci. 45: 78.
    • [9] in Bull. Jard. Bot. Brux. 19: 404 (1949)

    Sources

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
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    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (2017). Published on the internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp
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    [C] © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Species Profiles
    Kew Species Profiles
    [D]
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