1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Genus: Sesbania Scop.
      1. Sesbania sudanica J.B.Gillett

        This species is accepted, and its native range is W. Tropical Africa to NW. Ethiopia.

    [KBu]

    Bidgood, S. & Friis, I. 2009. Reconsideration of the African species Sesbania sudanica and S. hepperi (Leguminosae subfam. Papilionoideae) as to their variation in Ethiopia. Kew Bulletin 64: 301. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-009-9119-1

    Type
    Sudan, Gedaref Distr., near Sugara, 25 Sept. 1951, Beshir 135 (holotype K!).
    Note
    S. sudanica subsp. occidentalis J. B. Gillett (1963: 136), synon. nov. Type: 58 – 64 km E of Accra on road to Ada, 18 March 1960, Akpabla 2036 (holotype K!; isotype GC). S. hepperi J. B. Gillett (1963: 137), synon. nov. Type: Nigeria, Adamawa province, between Yola and Jimeta, 190 m, 1 Nov. 1957, Hepper 1196 (holotype K!). In J. B. Gillett’s revision of Sesbania (Gillett 1963) and in the floras based on the taxonomy of that revision there is a large group of annual savanna species of Sesbanialacking, or having very short free tips on the appendages of the standard. The characters distinguishing between these species are mainly quantitative and some are very slight, and the species have proven to be quite difficult to define and identify. We have produced a table of characters (Table 1) of what we find are the taxa most clearly related to our Ethiopian material, including S. sudanica, S. sudanica subsp. occidentalis, S. hepperi, S. dalziellii E. Phillips & Hutch., S. greenwayi J. B. Gillett, S. paucisemina J. B. Gillett, S. microphylla E. Phillips & Hutch. and S. leptocarpa DC. The information in Table 1 is as far as possible based on information in Gillett’s revision or his account of the genus for the Flora of Tropical East Africa, but because his revision did not give full descriptions of already established species it has in a few cases been necessary to supplement this with information from specimens named by him at K. It appears from the comparison that our plants, together with S. hepperi, S. sudanica, and S. sudanica subsp. occidentalis, can be distinguished from other species without free tips on the appendages of the standard by the following characters: style pilose, pubescent or tomentose (although the style of S. greenwayi is pubscent in the upper part), rostrum 10 – 15 mm long and pods not or only faintly torulose.
    Habit
    Annual herb with glabrous (rarely slightly pubescent in the youngest parts), slightly glaucous and striate stems that may be softly woody at the base, up to c. 3, rarely 5 m high (one specimen has been described as prostrate); stems up to 20 mm in diameter, unbranched or very little branched
    Leaves
    Leaves spirally arranged. Stipules linear-lanceolate, erect, 4 – 5 mm long, glabrous, very soon falling and leaving a linear scar
    Petiole
    Petiole 1 – 2 cm long, with a brownish coloured joint (pulvinus), at base
    Rachis
    Rachis 12 – 20 (– 25) cm long, not aculeate
    Leaflets
    Leaflets in (10 –) 20 – 40 (– 50) pairs, gradually decreasing in size towards the tip, glabrous, oblong with parallel sides, very variable in size from being small near the top of the plant to much larger on the lower parts of the stems, with an interval of 3 – 5 mm between the leaflets, petiolules up to c. 0.5 mm long, lamina of leaflets 5 – 22 × 1.5 – 4 mm, green above, greyish-green below, apiculate
    Inflorescences
    Racemes with 4 – 10 (– 15) flowers; peduncle 1 – 2.5 (– 3) cm long, glabrescent; rachis 5 – 20 (– 30) cm long, including peduncle, prolonged in fruit, but only the 2 – 3 lowermost flowers normally develop fruits
    Pedicel
    Pedicels 5 – 12 mm long, very thin, up to 15 mm in fruit, thickened; bracts and bracteoles linear, 1 – 2 mm long, bracts inserted near the middle of the pedicel, caducous, bracteoles inserted just below the receptacle, not falling as early as the bracts. Receptacle glabrous, 1 – 1.5 mm long; calyx tube 3 – 5 mm long, broadly campanulate to almost cylindrical; calyx teeth triangular, 1 – 2 mm long, faintly tomentose along the margin
    Corolla
    Standard with lamina almost circular in outline, 15 – 18 × 15 – 18 mm, standard appendages at base less than 1 mm wide, with no free tips or free tips less than 0.5 mm long; claw c. 5 mm long. Wings with oblong lamina, 15 – 18 × 4 – 7 mm, with apiculate basal projection 1 – 1.7 mm long; claw 3 – 5 mm long Keel with broadly ovoid lamina, 7 – 10 × 5 – 6 mm, with hooked apiculate projection at base 1 – 3 mm long; claw 8 – 9 mm long Corolla yellow, with dark purplish brown spots on outside of standard and wings
    Filaments
    Filament tube 12 – 16 (– 20) mm long, free part of filament 3 – 6 mm long
    Ovary
    Ovary with 30 – 45 ovules, glabrous, 14 – 18 mm long; style pubescent or at least with a few hairs in the upper part, 5 – 6 mm long
    Fruits
    Ripe pod with 20 – 30 (– 40) seeds, unwinged, but with a thickened suture c. 1 – 2 mm broad, 22 – 28 cm long, including the 10 – 15 mm long apical beak and the 10 – 15 mm long basal stipe without developed seeds, 2 – 3 mm thick, septae (5 –) 6 – 8 mm apart
    Seeds
    Seeds brown, hardly maculate, rounded to subcylindrical, 3 – 4 × c. 1.7 × 1.4 mm; hilum c. 1.2 mm from micropyle.
    Distribution
    Ethiopia, Sudan, Central African Republic, Cameroon, Nigeria, Togo, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Mali, Gunea.
    Ecology
    Our field observations in western Ethiopia indicate that specimens of Sesbaniasudanica are found in depressions with black cotton soil where the dominant surrounding vegetation is Terminalia-Combretum woodland. Sometimes the plants grow up through thorny thicket, e.g. of Dichrostachyscinerea, but they may also occur in open grassland on black cotton soil and in other habitats that remain damp for a long time, e.g. in road ditches and in damp places in dry river beds. This agrees well with label information from Sudan, where the species has been recorded from depressions dominated by Oryza spp. in broadleaved woodland, in swampy places in grassland, and on heavy clay soil. Among the more incomplete habitat notes recorded on labels from West Africa are stream beds, swampy areas in woodlands or dried up swampy areas by roadsides. The recorded altitudinal range is 150 – 750 m a.s.l.
    Conservation
    With a distribution almost from the Atlantic to the Ethiopian Highlands it seems that Sesbaniasudanica should be placed in the IUCN category of Least Concern (LC).
    [ILDIS]

    International Legume Database and Information Service

    Conservation
    Insufficiently known
    Ecology
    Africa: Sudanian freshwater swamp and aquatic vegetation
    Habit
    Annual, Not climbing, Herb
    [ILDIS]

    International Legume Database and Information Service

    Conservation
    Not Threatened
    Ecology
    Africa: Sudanian freshwater swamp and aquatic vegetation
    Habit
    Annual, Not climbing, Herb

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Benin, Burkina, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Mali, Nigeria, Sudan, Togo

    Sesbania sudanica J.B.Gillett appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jun 22, 1960 [Baliker Beskin] [135], Sudan K000393402 holotype
    Hepper, F.N. [1196], Nigeria Sesbania hepperi K000393415 holotype
    Hepper, F.N. [1196], Nigeria Sesbania hepperi K000393416 holotype

    First published in Kew Bull. 17: 135 (1963)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Bidgood, S. & Friis, I. (2009). Reconsideration of the African species Sesbania sudanica and S. hepperi (Leguminosae subfam. Papilionoideae) as to their variation in Ethiopis Kew Bulletin 64: 301-305. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Lock, J.M. (1989). Legumes of Africa a check-list: 1-619. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Kew Bulletin
    • SebsebeDemissew, Friis, I., Nordal, I. & Burger, A.-M. (2006). Disjunctions in the African flora as seen from the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea. In: S. A. Ghazanfar & H. J. Beentje (eds), Taxonomy and ecology of African plants, their conservation and sustainable use, pp. 247 – 258. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.Google Scholar
    • ____ & ____ (2000). Additions to Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea … 39. Sesbania. In: I. Hedberg & S. Edwards (eds), Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, Vol. 2, 1: 455 – 457. Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa & Uppsala University, Uppsala.Google Scholar
    • Bidgood, S. & Friis, I. (1998). Sesbaniamelanocaulis, sp. nov. (Leguminosae subfam. Papilionoideae) from SW Ethiopia. Nord. J. Bot. 18: 209 – 213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
    • ____ (1993). Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.Google Scholar
    • Thulin, M. (1986). Fabaceae (Leguminosae) subfamily 3. Papilionoideae (Faboideae). In: I. Hedberg & S. Edwards (eds), Flora of Ethiopia, Vol. 3: 97 – 251. Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa & Uppsala University, Uppsala.Google Scholar
    • White, F. (1983). UNESCO/AETFAT/UNSO Vegetation Map of Africa & A descriptive memoir to accompany the UNESCO/AETFAT/UNSO Vegetation Map of Africa. UNESCO, Paris.Google Scholar
    • ____ (1971). Sesbania. In: E. Milne-Redhead & R. M. Polhill (eds), Flora of Tropical East Africa, Leguminosae (part 3), subfamily Papilionoideae (1): 330 – 351. Crown Agents for Overseas Governments and Administrations, London.Google Scholar
    • Gillett, J. B. (1963). Sesbania in Africa (excluding Madagascar) and southern Arabia. Kew Bull. 17: 91 – 159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Bidgood, S. & Friis, I. (2009). Reconsideration of the African species Sesbania sudanica and S. hepperi (Leguminosae subfam. Papilionoideae) as to their variation in Ethiopis Kew Bulletin 64: 301-305. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    International Legume Database and Information Service
    • Gillett, J. B. (1963). Kew Bull. 17:91-159. Sesbania in Africa (excl. Madagascar

    Sources

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    International Legume Database and Information Service
    International Legume Database and Information Service (ILDIS) V10.39 Nov 2011
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Bulletin
    Kew Bulletin
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0