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Tamarind fruits were traded widely in ancient times. Records from the eastern Mediterranean show Tamarindus indica was already in cultivation there in the fourth century B.C. On encountering the fruit in western India, Arab sea-traders thought the sticky black pulp and seeds of the fruit resembled their native date palm, so they combined their common name for date palm 'Tamr', along with the Arabic name for India ('hindi'), to arrive at the common name tamrhindi on which the scientific name Tamarindus is based.

[KSP]

Kew Species Profiles

General Description

From the sausage-shaped fruits of the tamarind tree comes the sticky acidic pulp that has been used as a food ingredient for thousands of years.

Tamarind fruits were traded widely in ancient times. Records from the eastern Mediterranean show Tamarindus indica was already in cultivation there in the fourth century B.C. On encountering the fruit in western India, Arab sea-traders thought the sticky black pulp and seeds of the fruit resembled their native date palm, so they combined their common name for date palm 'Tamr', along with the Arabic name for India ('hindi'), to arrive at the common name tamrhindi on which the scientific name Tamarindus is based.

Species Profile
Geography and distribution

The origin of tamarind is uncertain as it has been widely cultivated since ancient times. It is apparently native to tropical Africa and Madagascar but is found throughout the tropics. In some areas where it was originally cultivated, it has now run wild (it is naturalised).

Description

Overview: A tree up to 30 m tall with a spreading crown of up to 12 m in diameter.

Leaves:The leaves are up to 15 cm long and are composed of numerous small leaflets, which close at night, arranged in pairs along a central axis.

Flowers: The flowers are about 2.5 cm across and have three petals that are golden with a pattern of red veins as well as two tiny thread-like petals that are barely visible. The flowers are borne on inflorescences up to about 20 cm long.

Fruits: The brown, short-haired, sausage-like fruits contain an acidic pulp which is a much-prized ingredient of confectioneries, curries and pickles.

Threats and conservation

This widely distributed species is not currently of conservation concern.

Uses

From the sausage-shaped fruits of the tamarind tree comes the sticky acidic pulp that has been used as a food ingredient for thousands of years. The pulp was traded widely in ancient times leading to the extensive use and cultivation of tamarind, which in turn has resulted in the widespread tropical distribution of this species.

The edible fruits, and especially the pulp, can be eaten raw or used as an ingredient in curries, pickles, confectionery and in fermented drinks. The seeds can be eaten raw or cooked. Tamarind wood is used as timber, firewood and for charcoal. Other uses of the species include medicines, dyes and for planting as an ornamental.

Cultivation

Tamarindus indica is propagated at Kew using semi-ripe apical or internodal cuttings. Initially these are placed in a misting unit where there is bottom heat and frequent fogging. When rooting has occurred successfully, the plants are potted up into a loam-based or organic compost. They are then placed in a zone where the temperature is maintained at 18 to 28 ˚C. The watering regime keeps the substrate constantly moist but not soggy.

This species is subject to mealy bug, which is removed physically whenever possible. It is hoped that tamarind could be used as a host for the parasite sandalwood in future growth experiments in the Tropical Nursery.

Millennium Seed Bank: Seed storage

Kew's Millennium Seed Bank Partnership aims to save plant life world wide, focusing on plants under threat and those of most use in the future. Seeds are dried, packaged and stored at a sub-zero temperature in our seed bank vault.

Search Kew's Seed Information Database for further details on Tamarindus indica seeds

Tamarind at Kew

A tamarind from Ethiopia can be seen in Kew's Palm House.

There are also specimens of Tamarindus indica in the Tropical Nursery, one of the behind-the-scenes areas of the Gardens.

Distribution
Madagascar
Ecology
Tropical seasonally dry forest, woodland and wooded grassland, often found along rivers.
Conservation
This widely distributed species is not currently of conservation concern.
Hazards

Flour from the ground seeds can cause asthma and contact dermatitis.

[FZ]

Leguminosae, R.K. Brummitt, A.C. Chikuni, J.M. Lock and R.M. Polhill. Flora Zambesiaca 3:2. 2007

Habit
Tree to 25 m; crown rounded; bark rough, grey or grey-black.
Branches
Young branchlets pubescent to puberulous.
Leaves
Leaves: stipules free, narrowly ovate, small, early caducous; petiole with rachis 5–12(16) cm long, pubescent; leaflets in 10–18 pairs, (0.8)1.2–3.2 cm long, narrowly oblong, rounded and asymmetric at the base, rounded to truncate or sometimes emarginate at the apex, pubescent or occasionally glabrous except for a tuft of yellowish hairs at the base, venation raised-reticulate on both surfaces.
Inflorescences
Racemes 1–15(22) cm long; axis pubescent to densely so; pedicels 3–14 mm long, glabrous to pubescent.
Flowers
Flower buds red.
Hypanthium
Hypanthium 3–5 mm long.
Calyx
Sepals pale yellow inside, reddish outside, 8–12 mm long, elliptic, acute, imbricate.
Corolla
Petals yellow with red veins, large ones 10–13 mm long, elliptic to obovate-elliptic.
Fruits
Pods 3–14 cm long, 2–3 cm in diameter, cylindrical with irregular constrictions, straight or curved, brown-scurfy, 1–10-seeded.
Seeds
Seeds chestnut-brown, 11–17 × 10–12 mm, rhombic to trapezioid.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1–4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Distribution
Native of tropical Africa (doubtfully also Asia), now widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions for ornament and for the fruits.
Habit
Evergreen tree 3–24 m high Large petals elliptic or obovate-elliptic, 1–1.3 cm long, golden with red veins
Leaves
Leaves 5–12(–16) cm long; leaflets c. 10–18 pairs, narrowly oblong, (0.8–)1.2–3.2 x 0.3–1.1 cm, usually glabrous or nearly so
Inflorescences
Racemes 1–15(–22) cm long
Calyx
Sepals 0.8–1.2 cm long, reddish outside
Fruits
Pods (3–)6.5–14 x 2–3 cm, 1–10-seeded
Seeds
Seeds chestnut brown, 11–17 x 10–12 mm.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 1200 m.; Andes, Islas Caribeñas, Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia, Pacífico, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
Habit
Árbol

[FTEA]

Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

Habit
Tree 3–24 m. high; bark rough, grey or grey-black; crown rounded; young branchlets pubescent or puberulous.
Leaves
Leaves:petiole with rhachis 5–12(–16) cm. long, ± pubescent; leaflets in 10–18(–21, fide F.C.B.) pairs, narrowly oblong, (0.8–)1.2–3.2 cm. long, 0.3–1.1 cm. wide, rounded to rounded-subtruncate rarely slightly emarginate at apex, rounded and asymmetric at base, glabrous except for a tuft of yellowish hairs at base, sometimes pubescent up midrib and margins, rarely all over both surfaces; venation ± reticulate-raised on both surfaces.
Inflorescences
Racemes 1–15(–22) cm. long; axis subglabrous to densely pubescent; pedicels 3–14 mm. long, glabrous to pubescent.
Buds
Flower-buds red.
Hypanthium
Hypanthium 3–5 mm. long.
Calyx
Sepals 8–12 mm. long, pale yellow inside, reddish outside.
Corolla
Large petals 10–13 mm. long, elliptic or obovate-elliptic, gold with red veins.
Fruits
Pods curved or sometimes straight, sausage-like, (3–)6.5–14 cm. long, 2–3 cm. in diameter, usually obtuse at base and apex, sometimes irregularly constricted, closely covered outside with brown scurf, 1–10-seeded.
Seeds
Seeds chestnut-brown, ± rhombic to trapeziform, 11–17 mm. long, 10–12 mm. wide.
Figures
Fig. 32.
Habitat
Woodland, wooded grassland, deciduous bushland; near sea-level to 1520 m.
Distribution
widespread in the tropics of the Old World K1 K2 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8

[ILDIS]

International Legume Database and Information Service

Conservation
Not Threatened
Ecology
Africa: Zambezian woodland, Sudanian woodland, Somalia-Masai forest, Lake Victoria regional transition zone; scrub forest., Zanzibar-Inhambane regional transition zone; bushland and thicket., Cultivated; Indian Ocean: West Malagasy forest.
Habit
Perennial, Not climbing, Tree
Vernacular
Amli, Anbli, Imli, Indian Date, Kily, Madiro, Maha-siyambala, Puli, Siyambala, Tamaleni, Tamare, Tamaren, Tamarin, Tamarin des Bas, Tamarind, Tamarindo, Tamarinier, Tamarinier des Bas, Tamerine, Tamrind

[FWTA]

Caesalpiniaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

Ecology
Commonly cultivated; also in savannah, especially on termite mounds.

>

[KSP]
Use
Food, timber.

[ILDIS]
Use
Chemical products, Domestic, Environmental, Fibre, Food and Drink, Medicine, Miscellaneous, Wood

Doubtfully present in:

Hainan

Native to:

Madagascar

Introduced into:

Aldabra, Andaman Is., Angola, Aruba, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Chad, Chagos Archipelago, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, Galápagos, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, India, Iraq, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Leeward Is., Liberia, Libya, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Mozambique Channel I, Myanmar, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Oman, Pakistan, Panamá, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Rodrigues, Réunion, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Socotra, Somalia, Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sumatera, Tanzania, Texas, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Uganda, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Windward Is., Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

English
Tamarind

Tamarindus indica L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jun 1, 2009 Massuqueto, S.C. [2], Brazil K000931846
Nov 14, 2005 Harley, R.M. [54736], Brazil K000890882
Oct 1, 1999 Bisset, E. [11], Madagascar K000383035
Jan 1, 1997 McWhirter, J.H. [124], Madagascar K000383046
Jan 1, 1997 Decary, R. [15992], Madagascar K000383033
Jan 1, 1997 Baron, R. [4572], Madagascar K000383051
Jan 1, 1997 Baron, R. [165], Madagascar K000383053
Jan 1, 1997 Chauvet, F. [158], Madagascar K000383036
Jan 1, 1997 Randrianasolo [2160], Madagascar K000383042
Jan 1, 1997 s.coll. [883], Madagascar K000383039
Jan 1, 1997 s.coll. [7968], Madagascar K000383041
Jan 1, 1997 Ramamonjisoa [2552], Madagascar K000383043
Jan 1, 1997 Hladik, C.M. [1], Madagascar K000383032
Jan 1, 1997 Boiteau, P. [1018], Madagascar K000383034
Jan 1, 1997 Ranjokiny [8858], Madagascar K000383038
Jan 1, 1997 Tsilizy [6782], Madagascar K000383040
Jun 1, 1988 Phillipson, P.B. [1822], Madagascar K000383031
Mar 29, 1988 Mendonça, R.C. [397], Brazil K000931839
Tanner, R. [333], Tanzania 15508.000
McWhirter, J.H. [124], Madagascar 32133.000
Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. [14336], Madagascar K000383037
Renvoize, S.A. [717], Seychelles 7315.000
Lewis, G.P., Brazil 51915.000
Lewis, G.P. [CFCR7512], Brazil K000931845
Burchell [6253], Brazil K000931840
Burchell [5125], Brazil K000931841
Owens, S.J., USA 52828.000
Eiten, G. [10303], Brazil K000931844
Glocker [153], Brazil K000931843
Hildebrandt, J.M. [3303], Madagascar K000383049
Hildebrandt, J.M. [3303], Madagascar K000383052
Lam, H.J. [6114], Madagascar K000383045
Humblot, M. [373], Comoros K000383048
Barnett, L.C. [273], Madagascar K000383050
Malcomber, S.T. [1115], Madagascar K000383030
Glaziou, A.F.M. [2533], Brazil K000931842
Scott-Elliot, G.F. [2626], Madagascar K000383056
Ramamonjisoa [11636], Madagascar K000383044
Schlieben, H.-.J. [8251], Madagascar K000383047
Roussel, S. [14], Madagascar K000383055
s.coll. [Cat. no. 5824], Bangladesh K001122283
s.coll. [Cat. no. 5824], Thailand K001122284
s.coll. [Cat. no. 5824], Thailand K001122285
s.coll. [Cat. no. 5824] K001122286
s.coll. [Cat. no. 5824] K001122287
s.coll. [Cat. no. 5824] K001122288
s.coll. [Cat. no. 5824] K001122289

First published in Sp. Pl.: 34 (1753)

Accepted by

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Literature

Kew Species Profiles

  • Lewis, G., Schrire, B. Mackinder, B. & Lock, J. M. (eds) (2005). Legumes of the World. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

  • DuPuy, D. J., Labat, J. -N., Rabevohitra, R, Villiers, J. -F., Bosser, J. & Moat, J. (2002). The Leguminosae of Madagascar. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Burkill, H. M. (1995). The Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa 3. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • DADOBAT. Domestication and development of baobab and tamarind.

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Aubrév. Fl. For. Soud.-Guln. 226, t. 57, 6–7.
  • Chev. Bot. 232
  • —F.T.A. 2: 308

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Lepschi, B. & Monro, A. (Project Coordinators) (2014). Australian Plant Census (APC) Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria. http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/index.html.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Leti, M., Hul, S., Fouché, J.-G., Cheng, S.K. & David, B. (2013). Flore photographique du Cambodge: 1-589. Éditions Privat, Toulouse.
  • Evenhuis, N.L. & Eldredge, L.G. (eds.) (2012). Records of the Hawaii biological survey for 2011. Part II: plants Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 113: 1-102.
  • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
  • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India Nelumbo 54: 39-91.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Mosti, S., Raffaelli, M. & Tardelli, M. (2012). Contributions to the flora of central-southern Dhofar (Sultanate of Oman) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 67: 65-91.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Kalema, J. & Beentje, H. (2012). Conservation checklist of the trees of Uganda: 1-235. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2010). Flora of China 10: 1-642. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera & C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2010). Manual de plantas de Costa Rica volumen V. Dicotiledóneas (Clusiaceae-Gunneraceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 119: 1-970. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Sarmah, K.K. & Borthakur, S.K. (2009). A checklist of angiospermic plants of Manas national park in Assam, India Pleione 3: 190-200.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. (2007). Flora of the Sultanate of Oman. volume 2. Crassulaceae - Apiaceae Scripta Botanica Belgica 36: 1-220.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
  • Lock, J.M. & Ford, C.S. (2004). Legumes of Malesia a Check-List: 1-295. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Kumar, S. & Sane, P.V. (2003). Legumes of South Asia. A Checklist: 1-536. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Balick, M.J., Nee, M.H. & Atha, D.E. (2000). Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Belize with Common Names an Uses: 1-246. New Yourk Botanic Garden Press, New York.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánes, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador: 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999). Ecology of the Chagos archipelago: 1-350. Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley.
  • Isely, D. (1998). Native and Naturalized Leguminosae (Fabaceae) of the United States: 1-1007. Monte L. Bean Life Science Museum. Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah.
  • Ananda Rao, T. & Ellis, J.L. (1995). Flora of Lakshadweep islands off the Malabar coast, peninsular India, with emphasis on phytogeographical distribution of plants Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 19: 235-250.
  • Gonzalez, F., Nelson Diaz, J. & Lowry, P. (1995). Flora Illustrada de San Andrés y Providencia: 1-281. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Colombia.
  • Castle, G.E. (1994). Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. Orstom Editions.
  • Lock, J.M. & Heald, J. (1994). Legumes of Indo-China a checck-list: 1-164. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
  • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Polhill, R.M. (1990). Flore des Mascareignes 80: 1-235. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1989 publ. 1990). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 3: 1-659. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Lock, J.M. (1989). Legumes of Africa a check-list: 1-619. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • D'Arcy, W.G. (1987). Flora of Panama. Checklist and Index. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 17: 1-328. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Smith, A.C. (1985). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 3: 1-758. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Correll, D.S. & Correll, H.B. (1982). Flora of the Bahama Archipelago: 1-1692. J.Cramer, Vaduz.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 3: 1-89. ORSTROM, Bangui.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Berhaut, J. (1975). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 4: 1-625. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
  • Townsend, C.C. (1974). Flora of Iraq 3: 1-662. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
  • Fosberg, F.R. (1957). The Maldive islands, Indian Ocean Atoll Research Bulletin 58: 1-37.
  • Standley, P.C. & Steyermark, J.A. (1946). Flora of Guatemala Fieldiana Botany New Series 24(5): 1-502. Field Museum of Natural History.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 1, (1993) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • F. White, Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia p. 128 (1962).
  • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 109, fig. 21 (1961).
  • Roti-Michelozzi in Webbia 13: 134–141, fig. 1 (1957).
  • Torre & Hillcoat in Consp. Fl. Angol. 2: 217 (1956).
  • J. Léon. in Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, 3: 436 (1952).
  • W.J. Eggeling, Indigenous Trees of the Uganda Protectorate, ed. 2: 69, fig. 17 (1952).
  • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 106 (1949).
  • R. O. Williams, Useful and Ornamental Plants in Zanzibar and Pemba p. 461, photo, fig. (1949).
  • Battiscombe & Dale, Trees and Shrubs of Kenya Colony p. 63 (1936).
  • Bak. f., Leguminosae of Tropical Africa: 702 (1930).
  • L., Sp. Pl.: 34 (1753).

International Legume Database and Information Service

  • Du Puy, D. J. et al. (2002). The Leguminosae of Madagascar. RBG Kew.
  • Senaratna, L. K. (2001). A check list of the flowering plants of Sri Lanka. Colombo.
  • Welsh, S. L. (1998). Flora Societensis
  • DuPuy, D. J. & Telford, I. R. H. (1993). Flora of Austalia 50 Oceanic Islands 2:188-236
  • Jain, S. K. (1991). Dictionary of Indian Folk Medicine and Ethnobotany
  • Rudd, V. E. (1991). Flora of Ceylon 7: 34-107. Caesalpinioideae
  • Polhill, R, M. (1990). Legumineuses. In: Flore des Mascareignes, Vol 80. J. Bosser et a
  • Caius, J. F. (1989). The medicinal & poisonous Legumes of India. Jodhpur.
  • Robertson, S. A. (1989). Flowering Plants of Seychelles. Kew
  • Grierson, A. J. C. & Long, D. G. (1987). Flora of Bhutan, Vol. 1. (Part 3). Edinburgh: RBG
  • Ambasta, S. P. (1986). The useful plants of India
  • Liogier, A. H. (1985). La Flore de la Espanola. III
  • Larsen, K. et al. (1984). Flora of Thailand, Vol 4 Part 1. In: T. Smithinand & K. Larsen
  • Proctor, G. R. (1984). Fl. Cayman Islands Kew Bull. Addit. Ser. XI
  • Robertson, S. A. & Todd, D. M. (1983). Atoll Res. Bull. 273(3) :39-64 Vegetation of Frigate Island
  • White, F. (1983). The Vegetation of Africa
  • Correll, D. S. & Correll, H. B. (1982). Flora of the Bahama Archipelago. 1692pp J. Cramer
  • Sykes, W. (1979). Flora of Niue
  • Verdcourt, B. (1979). A Manual of New Guinea Legumes. Office of Forests, Lae, PNG
  • Ali, S. I. (1973). Flora of Pakistan, No. 54 Caesalpiniaceae. Karachi:Univ Karac
  • Adams, C. D. (1972). Flowering Plants of Jamaica Univ. West Indies, Mona, Jamaica
  • Parham, J. W. (1972). Plants of the Fiji Islands
  • Brenan, J. P. M. (1967). Caesalp. In: Flora Trop. East Africa. Milne-Redhead & Polhill
  • Aubreville, A. (1965). 9. Caesalpinoideae. In: Flora du Cameroun. Aubreville & Leroy
  • Eggeling, W. J. & Dale, I. R. (1952). The Indigenous Trees of the Uganda Protectorate.
  • Robyns, W. (Ed.) (1952). Flore du Congo Belge, Vol. 3. Mimosoideae, Caesalpinoideae
  • Dalziel, J. M. (1937). The Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa
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  • Balfour, I. B. (1879). The collections from Rodriguez. Botany. Phil. Trans. 168:326-387

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