1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Genus: Tamarindus Tourn. ex L.
      1. Tamarindus indica L.

        Tamarind fruits were traded widely in ancient times. Records from the eastern Mediterranean show Tamarindus indica was already in cultivation there in the fourth century B.C. On encountering the fruit in western India, Arab sea-traders thought the sticky black pulp and seeds of the fruit resembled their native date palm, so they combined their common name for date palm ‘Tamr’, along with the Arabic name for India (‘hindi’), to arrive at the common name tamrhindi on which the scientific name Tamarindus is based.

    [KSP]

    Kew Species Profiles

    General Description
    From the sausage-shaped fruits of the tamarind tree comes the sticky acidic pulp that has been used as a food ingredient for thousands of years.

    Tamarind fruits were traded widely in ancient times. Records from the eastern Mediterranean show Tamarindus indica was already in cultivation there in the fourth century B.C. On encountering the fruit in western India, Arab sea-traders thought the sticky black pulp and seeds of the fruit resembled their native date palm, so they combined their common name for date palm ‘Tamr’, along with the Arabic name for India (‘hindi’), to arrive at the common name tamrhindi on which the scientific name Tamarindus is based.

    Species Profile
    Geography and distribution

    The origin of tamarind is uncertain as it has been widely cultivated since ancient times. It is apparently native to tropical Africa and Madagascar but is found throughout the tropics. In some areas where it was originally cultivated, it has now run wild (it is naturalised).

    Description

    Overview: A tree up to 30 m tall with a spreading crown of up to 12 m in diameter.

    Leaves:The leaves are up to 15 cm long and are composed of numerous small leaflets, which close at night, arranged in pairs along a central axis.

    Flowers: The flowers are about 2.5 cm across and have three petals that are golden with a pattern of red veins as well as two tiny thread-like petals that are barely visible. The flowers are borne on inflorescences up to about 20 cm long.

    Fruits: The brown, short-haired, sausage-like fruits contain an acidic pulp which is a much-prized ingredient of confectioneries, curries and pickles.

    Threats and conservation

    This widely distributed species is not currently of conservation concern.

    Uses

    From the sausage-shaped fruits of the tamarind tree comes the sticky acidic pulp that has been used as a food ingredient for thousands of years. The pulp was traded widely in ancient times leading to the extensive use and cultivation of tamarind, which in turn has resulted in the widespread tropical distribution of this species.

    The edible fruits, and especially the pulp, can be eaten raw or used as an ingredient in curries, pickles, confectionery and in fermented drinks. The seeds can be eaten raw or cooked. Tamarind wood is used as timber, firewood and for charcoal. Other uses of the species include medicines, dyes and for planting as an ornamental.

    Cultivation

    Tamarindus indica is propagated at Kew using semi-ripe apical or internodal cuttings. Initially these are placed in a misting unit where there is bottom heat and frequent fogging. When rooting has occurred successfully, the plants are potted up into a loam-based or organic compost. They are then placed in a zone where the temperature is maintained at 18 to 28 ˚C. The watering regime keeps the substrate constantly moist but not soggy.

    This species is subject to mealy bug, which is removed physically whenever possible. It is hoped that tamarind could be used as a host for the parasite sandalwood in future growth experiments in the Tropical Nursery.

    Millennium Seed Bank: Seed storage

    Kew's Millennium Seed Bank Partnership aims to save plant life world wide, focusing on plants under threat and those of most use in the future. Seeds are dried, packaged and stored at a sub-zero temperature in our seed bank vault.

    Search Kew's Seed Information Database for further details on Tamarindus indica seeds

    Tamarind at Kew

    A tamarind from Ethiopia can be seen in Kew's Palm House.

    There are also specimens of Tamarindus indica in the Tropical Nursery, one of the behind-the-scenes areas of the Gardens.

    Distribution
    Madagascar
    Ecology
    Tropical seasonally dry forest, woodland and wooded grassland, often found along rivers.
    Conservation
    This widely distributed species is not currently of conservation concern.
    Hazards

    Flour from the ground seeds can cause asthma and contact dermatitis.

    [FZ]

    Leguminosae, R.K. Brummitt, A.C. Chikuni, J.M. Lock and R.M. Polhill. Flora Zambesiaca 3:2. 2007

    Habit
    Tree to 25 m; crown rounded; bark rough, grey or grey-black.
    Branches
    Young branchlets pubescent to puberulous.
    Leaves
    Leaves: stipules free, narrowly ovate, small, early caducous; petiole with rachis 5–12(16) cm long, pubescent; leaflets in 10–18 pairs, (0.8)1.2–3.2 cm long, narrowly oblong, rounded and asymmetric at the base, rounded to truncate or sometimes emarginate at the apex, pubescent or occasionally glabrous except for a tuft of yellowish hairs at the base, venation raised-reticulate on both surfaces.
    Inflorescences
    Racemes 1–15(22) cm long; axis pubescent to densely so; pedicels 3–14 mm long, glabrous to pubescent.
    Flowers
    Flower buds red.
    Hypanthium
    Hypanthium 3–5 mm long.
    Calyx
    Sepals pale yellow inside, reddish outside, 8–12 mm long, elliptic, acute, imbricate.
    Corolla
    Petals yellow with red veins, large ones 10–13 mm long, elliptic to obovate-elliptic.
    Fruits
    Pods 3–14 cm long, 2–3 cm in diameter, cylindrical with irregular constrictions, straight or curved, brown-scurfy, 1–10-seeded.
    Seeds
    Seeds chestnut-brown, 11–17 × 10–12 mm, rhombic to trapezioid.
    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Tree 3–24 m. high; bark rough, grey or grey-black; crown rounded; young branchlets pubescent or puberulous.
    Leaves
    Leaves:petiole with rhachis 5–12(–16) cm. long, ± pubescent; leaflets in 10–18(–21, fide F.C.B.) pairs, narrowly oblong, (0.8–)1.2–3.2 cm. long, 0.3–1.1 cm. wide, rounded to rounded-subtruncate rarely slightly emarginate at apex, rounded and asymmetric at base, glabrous except for a tuft of yellowish hairs at base, sometimes pubescent up midrib and margins, rarely all over both surfaces; venation ± reticulate-raised on both surfaces.
    Inflorescences
    Racemes 1–15(–22) cm. long; axis subglabrous to densely pubescent; pedicels 3–14 mm. long, glabrous to pubescent.
    Buds
    Flower-buds red.
    Hypanthium
    Hypanthium 3–5 mm. long.
    Calyx
    Sepals 8–12 mm. long, pale yellow inside, reddish outside.
    Corolla
    Large petals 10–13 mm. long, elliptic or obovate-elliptic, gold with red veins.
    Fruits
    Pods curved or sometimes straight, sausage-like, (3–)6.5–14 cm. long, 2–3 cm. in diameter, usually obtuse at base and apex, sometimes irregularly constricted, closely covered outside with brown scurf, 1–10-seeded.
    Seeds
    Seeds chestnut-brown, ± rhombic to trapeziform, 11–17 mm. long, 10–12 mm. wide.
    Figures
    Fig. 32.
    [FWTA]

    Caesalpiniaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

    Ecology
    Commonly cultivated; also in savannah, especially on termite mounds.
    [UPPd]
    Pregnancy, Birth or Puerpuerium Disorders
    Amenorrea. Bark - Árboles y arbustos potencialmente valiosos para la restauración ecológica y la reforestación. Reporte técnico del proyecto J084.
    Infections & Infestations
    Antimicrobial Unspecified parts - Insect management products from Malian tradicional medicine Infecciones bucales en los recien nacidos. Aerial parts - Árboles y arbustos potencialmente valiosos para la restauración ecológica y la reforestación. Reporte técnico del proyecto J084. Vermifuga. Other plant parts - Árboles y arbustos potencialmente valiosos para la restauración ecológica y la reforestación. Reporte técnico del proyecto J084.
    Respiratory System Disorders
    Asma. Bark - Árboles y arbustos potencialmente valiosos para la restauración ecológica y la reforestación. Reporte técnico del proyecto J084.
    Unspecified Animal Food Type
    Bees Unspecified plant parts - Useful trees and shrubs of Kenya
    Boundary Barrier Support Plants
    Cerca viva. Entire plant - Árboles y arbustos potencialmente valiosos para la restauración ecológica y la reforestación. Reporte técnico del proyecto J084. Barrera contra incendios. Entire plant - Árboles y arbustos potencialmente valiosos para la restauración ecológica y la reforestación. Reporte técnico del proyecto J084.
    Sacred Spiritual Plants
    Ceremonial. Aerial parts - Árboles y arbustos potencialmente valiosos para la restauración ecológica y la reforestación. Reporte técnico del proyecto J084.
    Erosion Control
    Control de erosión. Entire plant - Árboles y arbustos potencialmente valiosos para la restauración ecológica y la reforestación. Reporte técnico del proyecto J084.
    Digestive System Disorders
    Disenteria. Aerial parts - Árboles y arbustos potencialmente valiosos para la restauración ecológica y la reforestación. Reporte técnico del proyecto J084. Laxante. Entire plant - Árboles y arbustos potencialmente valiosos para la restauración ecológica y la reforestación. Reporte técnico del proyecto J084. Estomaquica. Other plant parts - Árboles y arbustos potencialmente valiosos para la restauración ecológica y la reforestación. Reporte técnico del proyecto J084.
    Endocrine System Disorders
    Diuretica. Entire plant - Árboles y arbustos potencialmente valiosos para la restauración ecológica y la reforestación. Reporte técnico del proyecto J084. Enfermedades del higado. Roots (incl. Rhizomes etc) - Árboles y arbustos potencialmente valiosos para la restauración ecológica y la reforestación. Reporte técnico del proyecto J084.
    Abnormalities
    Fiebre. Entire plant - Árboles y arbustos potencialmente valiosos para la restauración ecológica y la reforestación. Reporte técnico del proyecto J084.
    Wood
    Furniture - Especie maderable para elaboración de muebles. Entire plant - Árboles y arbustos potencialmente valiosos para la restauración ecológica y la reforestación. Reporte técnico del proyecto J084. Constructions - Especie maderable para diferentes construcciones. Entire plant - Árboles y arbustos potencialmente valiosos para la restauración ecológica y la reforestación. Reporte técnico del proyecto J084. Constructions - Timber, poles and posts. Stems - Useful trees and shrubs of Kenya Tools - Utensilios domésticos. Entire plant - Árboles y arbustos potencialmente valiosos para la restauración ecológica y la reforestación. Reporte técnico del proyecto J084. Tools - Mangos de herramientas. Entire plant - Árboles y arbustos potencialmente valiosos para la restauración ecológica y la reforestación. Reporte técnico del proyecto J084. Tools - Implementos agrícolas. Entire plant - Árboles y arbustos potencialmente valiosos para la restauración ecológica y la reforestación. Reporte técnico del proyecto J084. Constructions - Construcción rural. Entire plant - Árboles y arbustos potencialmente valiosos para la restauración ecológica y la reforestación. Reporte técnico del proyecto J084.
    Inflammation
    Inflamaciones. Entire plant - Árboles y arbustos potencialmente valiosos para la restauración ecológica y la reforestación. Reporte técnico del proyecto J084.
    Metabolic System Disorders
    Intoxicacion alcohólica. Entire plant - Árboles y arbustos potencialmente valiosos para la restauración ecológica y la reforestación. Reporte técnico del proyecto J084. Antidiabética. Entire plant - Árboles y arbustos potencialmente valiosos para la restauración ecológica y la reforestación. Reporte técnico del proyecto J084.
    Vegetables
    Las hojas jovenes, vainas y flores se usan como verdura de ensaladas. Other plant parts - Árboles y arbustos potencialmente valiosos para la restauración ecológica y la reforestación. Reporte técnico del proyecto J084.
    Soil Improvers
    Mulch, nitrogen fixing. Unspecified plant parts - Useful trees and shrubs of Kenya Mejora la fertilidad del suelo. Entire plant - Árboles y arbustos potencialmente valiosos para la restauración ecológica y la reforestación. Reporte técnico del proyecto J084. Estabiliza bancos de arena. Entire plant - Árboles y arbustos potencialmente valiosos para la restauración ecológica y la reforestación. Reporte técnico del proyecto J084. Recupera terrenos degradados. Entire plant - Árboles y arbustos potencialmente valiosos para la restauración ecológica y la reforestación. Reporte técnico del proyecto J084.
    Plant Pest Control
    Plant Pest Control - Insecticida. Entire plant - Árboles y arbustos potencialmente valiosos para la restauración ecológica y la reforestación. Reporte técnico del proyecto J084.
    Shade Shelter
    Sombra y refugio. Entire plant - Árboles y arbustos potencialmente valiosos para la restauración ecológica y la reforestación. Reporte técnico del proyecto J084.
    Unspecified Materials Chemicals
    Tools - Pestles and mortars. Unspecified plant parts - Useful trees and shrubs of Kenya Vehicles - Carts. Unspecified plant parts - Useful trees and shrubs of Kenya Vehicles - Boat building. Unspecified plant parts - Useful trees and shrubs of Kenya Furniture - Furniture. Unspecified plant parts - Useful trees and shrubs of Kenya Pigments - Para un colorante amarillo. Leaves - Árboles y arbustos potencialmente valiosos para la restauración ecológica y la reforestación. Reporte técnico del proyecto J084.
    Herbage
    Unspecified Animal - Fodder Unspecified plant parts - Useful trees and shrubs of Kenya Unspecified Animal - Forraje. Aerial parts - Árboles y arbustos potencialmente valiosos para la restauración ecológica y la reforestación. Reporte técnico del proyecto J084.
    Ornamentals
    Unspecified plant parts - Useful trees and shrubs of Kenya Ornato. Entire plant - Árboles y arbustos potencialmente valiosos para la restauración ecológica y la reforestación. Reporte técnico del proyecto J084.
    Charcoal
    Unspecified plant parts - Useful trees and shrubs of Kenya Formación de carbón, que antiguamente se usaba para pólvora. Entire plant - Árboles y arbustos potencialmente valiosos para la restauración ecológica y la reforestación. Reporte técnico del proyecto J084.
    Fuelwood
    Unspecified plant parts - Useful trees and shrubs of Kenya Leña. Entire plant - Árboles y arbustos potencialmente valiosos para la restauración ecológica y la reforestación. Reporte técnico del proyecto J084.
    Insecticidal
    Unspecified Poison Function Unspecified parts - Insect management products from Malian tradicional medicine
    Tannins Dyestuffs
    Unspecified Product - Tannin and dyes. Unspecified plant parts - Useful trees and shrubs of Kenya
    Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
    Veterinary medicine. Unspecified plant parts - Useful trees and shrubs of Kenya Twigs used in medicines. Stems - Useful trees and shrubs of Kenya Leaves used in medicines. Leaves - Useful trees and shrubs of Kenya Roots used in medicines. Bark - Useful trees and shrubs of Kenya Bark used in medicines. Roots (incl. Rhizomes etc) - Useful trees and shrubs of Kenya
    Injuries
    Wounds Unspecified parts - Insect management products from Malian tradicional medicine Antiseptica. Entire plant - Árboles y arbustos potencialmente valiosos para la restauración ecológica y la reforestación. Reporte técnico del proyecto J084.

    Images

    Distribution

    Found In:

    Madagascar

    Introduced Into:

    Aldabra, Andaman Is., Angola, Aruba, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Chad, Chagos Archipelago, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, Galápagos, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, India, Iraq, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Leeward Is., Liberia, Libya, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Mozambique Channel I, Myanmar, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Oman, Pakistan, Panamá, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Rodrigues, Réunion, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Socotra, Somalia, Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sumatera, Tanzania, Texas, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Uganda, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Windward Is., Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Common Names

    English
    Tamarind

    Tamarindus indica L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Identified Reference Herbarium Specimen Type Status
    Jun 1, 2009 Massuqueto, S.C. [2], Brazil K000931846
    Nov 14, 2005 Harley, R.M. [54736], Brazil K000890882
    Oct 1, 1999 Bisset, E. [11], Madagascar K000383035
    Jan 1, 1997 Hladik, C.M. [1], Madagascar K000383032
    Jan 1, 1997 Decary, R. [15992], Madagascar K000383033
    Jan 1, 1997 Boiteau, P. [1018], Madagascar K000383034
    Jan 1, 1997 Chauvet, F. [158], Madagascar K000383036
    Jan 1, 1997 Ranjokiny [8858], Madagascar K000383038
    Jan 1, 1997 s.coll. [883], Madagascar K000383039
    Jan 1, 1997 Tsilizy [6782], Madagascar K000383040
    Jan 1, 1997 s.coll. [7968], Madagascar K000383041
    Jan 1, 1997 Randrianasolo [2160], Madagascar K000383042
    Jan 1, 1997 Ramamonjisoa [2552], Madagascar K000383043
    Jan 1, 1997 McWhirter, J.H. [124], Madagascar K000383046
    Jan 1, 1997 Baron, R. [4572], Madagascar K000383051
    Jan 1, 1997 Baron, R. [165], Madagascar K000383053
    Jun 1, 1988 Phillipson, P.B. [1822], Madagascar K000383031
    Mar 29, 1988 Mendonça, R.C. [397], Brazil K000931839
    Renvoize, S.A. [717], Seychelles 7315.000
    Burchell [6253], Brazil K000931840
    Burchell [5125], Brazil K000931841
    Glaziou, A.F.M. [2533], Brazil K000931842
    Glocker [153], Brazil K000931843
    Eiten, G. [10303], Brazil K000931844
    Lewis, G.P. [CFCR7512], Brazil K000931845
    Owens, S.J., USA 52828.000
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5824], Bangladesh K001122283
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5824], Thailand K001122284
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5824], Thailand K001122285
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5824] K001122286
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5824] K001122287
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5824] K001122288
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5824] K001122289
    Malcomber, S.T. [1115], Madagascar K000383030
    Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. [14336], Madagascar K000383037
    Ramamonjisoa [11636], Madagascar K000383044
    Lam, H.J. [6114], Madagascar K000383045
    Schlieben, H.-.J. [8251], Madagascar K000383047
    Humblot, M. [373], Comoros K000383048
    Hildebrandt, J.M. [3303], Madagascar K000383049
    Barnett, L.C. [273], Madagascar K000383050
    Hildebrandt, J.M. [3303], Madagascar K000383052
    Roussel, S. [14], Madagascar K000383055
    Scott-Elliot, G.F. [2626], Madagascar K000383056
    Tanner, R. [333], Tanzania 15508.000
    Lewis, G.P., Brazil 51915.000
    McWhirter, J.H. [124], Madagascar 32133.000

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 34 (1753)

    Accepted in:

    • [1] (2016) Phytotaxa 250: 1-431
    • [2] Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015) The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan . Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    • [3] (2014) Australian Plant Census (APC) . Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria. http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/index.html
    • [4] (2014) Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 38: 563-619
    • [5] (2014) Phytotaxa 171: 1-78
    • [6] Leti, M., Hul, S., Fouché, J.-G., Cheng, S.K. & David, B. (2013) Flore photographique du Cambodge . Éditions Privat, Toulouse
    • [7] (2012) Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 113: 1-102
    • [8] (2012) Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167
    • [9] (2012) Nelumbo 54: 39-91
    • [10] (2012) Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192
    • [11] (2012) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 67: 65-91
    • [12] Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012) Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies) , ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
    • [13] Kalema, J. & Beentje, H. (2012) Conservation checklist of the trees of Uganda . Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    • [14] (2011) Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82
    • [15] (2010) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 119: 1-970. Missouri Botanical Garden
    • [16] Flora of China Editorial Committee (2010) Flora of China 10: 1-642. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis)
    • [17] (2009) Englera 29-1: 1-438
    • [18] (2009) Pleione 3: 190-200
    • [19] (2008) Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500
    • [20] (2008) Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria
    • [21] Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008) Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela . Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela
    • [22] Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008) Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas . SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras
    • [23] (2007) Flora Zambesiaca 3(2): 1-218. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    • [24] (2007) Scripta Botanica Belgica 36: 1-220
    • [25] (2006) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141
    • [26] Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006) Flore Analytique du Bénin . Backhuys Publishers
    • [27] Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006) Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau . Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento
    • [30] Lock, J.M. & Ford, C.S. (2004) Legumes of Malesia a Check-List . Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    • [31] Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004) Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago . The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh
    • [32] (2003) Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria
    • [33] Kumar, S. & Sane, P.V. (2003) Legumes of South Asia. A Checklist . Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    • [34] Du Puy, D.J., Labat, N.-N., Rabevohitra, R., Villiers, J.-F., Bosser, J. & Moat, J. (2002) The Leguminosae of Madagascar . Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    • [36] Balick, M.J., Nee, M.H. & Atha, D.E. (2000) Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Belize with Common Names an Uses . New Yourk Botanic Garden Press, New York
    • [37] Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánes, S. (eds.) (1999) Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador . Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis
    • [40] Isely, D. (1998) Native and Naturalized Leguminosae (Fabaceae) of the United States . Monte L. Bean Life Science Museum. Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah
    • [41] Wood, J.R.I. (1997) A handbook of the Yemen Flora . Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    • [45] (1994) Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. Orstom Editions
    • [46] Lock, J.M. & Heald, J. (1994) Legumes of Indo-China a checck-list . Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    • [47] MacKee, H.S. (1994) Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie , ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris
    • [48] (1993) Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra
    • [49] (1993) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden
    • [50] (1993) Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295
    • [52] Jones, M. (1991) A checklist of Gambian plants . Michael Jones, The Gambia College
    • [53] Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991) Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso . Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort
    • [54] (1990) Flore des Mascareignes 80: 1-235. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris
    • [55] (1989 publ. 1990) Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 3: 1-659. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps
    • [56] Lock, J.M. (1989) Legumes of Africa a check-list . Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    • [57] Milgahid, A.M. (1989) Flora of Saudi Arabia , ed. 3, 2: 1-282. University Libraries, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
    • [58] (1987) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 17: 1-328. Missouri Botanical Garden
    • [59] Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986) Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali . Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux
    • [60] Smith, A.C. (1985) Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 3: 1-758. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai
    • [61] Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984) Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn
    • [63] Boulvert, Y. (1977) Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 3: 1-89. ORSTROM, Bangui
    • [64] Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976) Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger . Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort
    • [66] (1974) Flora of Iraq 3: 1-662. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad
    • [67] Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972) Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional . Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort
    • [79] (1946) Fieldiana Botany New Series 24(5): 1-502. Field Museum of Natural History

    Literature

    • [28] Lewis, G., Schrire, B. Mackinder, B. & Lock, J. M. (eds) (2005). Legumes of the World. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    • [29] Useful trees and shrubs of Kenya
    • [35] DuPuy, D. J., Labat, J. -N., Rabevohitra, R, Villiers, J. -F., Bosser, J. & Moat, J. (2002). The Leguminosae of Madagascar. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • [38] Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999) Ecology of the Chagos archipelago . Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley
    • [39] Árboles y arbustos potencialmente valiosos para la restauración ecológica y la reforestación. Reporte técnico del proyecto J084.
    • [42] (1995) Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 19: 235-250
    • [43] Burkill, H. M. (1995). The Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa 3. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • [44] Gonzalez, F., Nelson Diaz, J. & Lowry, P. (1995) Flora Illustrada de San Andrés y Providencia . Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Colombia
    • [51] Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991) Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • [62] Correll, D.S. & Correll, H.B. (1982) Flora of the Bahama Archipelago . J.Cramer, Vaduz
    • [65] Berhaut, J. (1975) Flore illustrée du Sénégal 4: 1-625. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar
    • [68] Lewalle, J. (1970) Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental . Université officielle de Bujumbura
    • [69] F. White, Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia p. 128 (1962).
    • [70] Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 109, fig. 21 (1961).
    • [71] (1957) Atoll Research Bulletin 58: 1-37
    • [72] Roti-Michelozzi in Webbia 13: 134–141, fig. 1 (1957).
    • [73] Torre & Hillcoat in Consp. Fl. Angol. 2: 217 (1956).
    • [74] J. Léon. in Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, 3: 436 (1952).
    • [75] W.J. Eggeling, Indigenous Trees of the Uganda Protectorate, ed. 2: 69, fig. 17 (1952).
    • [76] Aubrév. Fl. For. Soud.-Guln. 226, t. 57, 6–7.
    • [77] J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 106 (1949).
    • [78] R. O. Williams, Useful and Ornamental Plants in Zanzibar and Pemba p. 461, photo, fig. (1949).
    • [80] Battiscombe & Dale, Trees and Shrubs of Kenya Colony p. 63 (1936).
    • [81] Bak. f., Leguminosae of Tropical Africa: 702 (1930).
    • [82] Chev. Bot. 232
    • [83] —F.T.A. 2: 308
    • [84] L., Sp. Pl.: 34 (1753).
    • [85] Insect management products from Malian tradicional medicine
    • [86] DADOBAT. Domestication and development of baobab and tamarind.

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    [A] http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    [B] http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    [C] http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (2017). Published on the internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp
    [D] See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    [E] © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Species Profiles
    Kew Species Profiles
    [F]
    [G] http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Library Art and Archives
    [H] Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Legumes of the World Online
    [I] Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/

    Neotropikey
    Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
    [J] http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    [K] Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Project MGU - Useful Plants Project (UPP) database
    [L]