1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Genus: Tephrosia Pers.
      1. Tephrosia chimanimaniana Brummitt

        Tephrosia chimanimaniana is a perennial shrub belonging to the pea and bean family (Leguminosae). It is most closely related to T. grandibracteata, a somewhat larger shrub restricted to the broad Nyanga area in eastern to central Zimbabwe.

    [KSP]

    Kew Species Profiles

    General Description
    A Near Threatened shrub belonging to the pea and bean family, Tephrosia chimanimaniana is restricted to the Chimanimani Mountains in eastern Zimbabwe.

    Tephrosia chimanimaniana is a perennial shrub belonging to the pea and bean family (Leguminosae). It is most closely related to T. grandibracteata, a somewhat larger shrub restricted to the broad Nyanga area in eastern to central Zimbabwe.

    The generic name is derived from the Greek word tephros, meaning ‘ash-coloured’, referring to the greyish tint of the leaves resulting from their dense trichomes (hairs). The specific epithet chimanimaniana refers to the region in which it is found – the Chimanimani Mountains.

    Species Profile
    Geography and distribution

    Restricted to the Chimanimani Mountains in the Chimanimani District of eastern Zimbabwe. 

    It occurs from the foot of the first mountain range to the quartzite crags, up to at least 2,135 m above sea level. The Chimanimani Mountains contain many plant species that do not occur elsewhere (endemic species).

    Description

    Overview:  Tephrosia chimanimaniana is a perennial shrub 0.3-2 m high. The young branches are densely covered with brown or greyish hairs.

    Leaves:  The leaves have 5-12 pairs of leaflets. The leaflets are somewhat leathery and up to 30 × 10 mm. The stipules (appendages at the base of leaf stalks) are narrowly triangular and 4-5 × 1-1.5 mm.

    Flowers:  The attractive, deep pink to purple flowers are borne in subspherical terminal heads exceeded by the leaves. The bracts are large and usually conspicuous, and are up to 14 × 9 mm. The whitish, hairy pedicels (stalks of individual flowers) are 5-7 mm long. The calyx is 7-10 mm long, with a dense covering of brown to whitish hairs. The petals are 13-15 mm long. The stamen tube is about 9 mm long. The ovary and style are covered in short, fine hairs.

    Fruits:  The details of the pods are unknown.

    Threats and conservation

    There are no known conservation measures specifically for Tephrosia chimanimaniana , but it is known to occur within the Chimanimani National Park. Because its distributional range is restricted to an area of only about 180 km², it has been rated as Near Threatened (NT) according to IUCN Red List criteria. Samples of seed should be collected and stored as an ex situ conservation measure.

    Fire is one of the principal factors governing the distribution of the plant communities of the Chimanimani Mountains, but it is not known whether it represents a specific threat to Tephrosia chimanimaniana .

    Illegal gold mining occurs within the Chimanimani National Park boundaries, and can lead to habitat degradation.

    Further research and fieldwork is recommended to better understand the conservation status of, and threats to, T. chimanimaniana .

    Conservation assessments carried out by Kew

    Tephrosia chimanimaniana is being monitored as part of the 'Sampled Red List Index' project, which aims to produce conservation assessments for a representative sample of the world’s plant species. This information will then be used to monitor trends in extinction risk and help focus conservation efforts where they are needed most.

    This species at Kew

    Pressed and dried specimens of Tephrosia chimanimaniana are held in Kew’s Herbarium, where they are available to researchers by appointment. The details, including an image, of one of these specimens can be seen online in the Herbarium Catalogue.

    Ecology
    Montane grassland, on quartzite.
    Conservation
    Near Threatened (NT) according to IUCN Red List criteria.
    Hazards

    None known (although other members of the genus Tephrosia are known to be poisonous to fish).

    [FZ]

    Leguminosae, R.K. Brummitt, D.K. Harder, G.P. Lewis, J.M. Lock, R.M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora Zambesiaca 3:3. 2007

    Branches
    Young branches densely brown or greyish spreading-pubescent to tomentose.
    Flowers
    Flowers in subspherical terminal heads exceeded by the leaves; bracts large and usually conspicuous, up to 14 × 9 mm, suborbicular and long-acuminate, densely brown tomentose to villous, often interspersed with long whitish hairs; pedicels 5–7 mm long, whitish villous. Flowers in subspherical terminal heads exceeded by the leaves; bracts large and usually conspicuous, up to 14 × 9 mm, suborbicular and long-acuminate, densely brown tomentose to villous, often interspersed with long whitish hairs; pedicels 5–7 mm long, whitish villous.
    Calyx
    Calyx 7–10 mm long, densely brown to whitish villous, the teeth longer than the campanulate part, the lower one very slightly longer than the others, the two upper teeth not or very slightly fused. Calyx 7–10 mm long, densely brown to whitish villous, the teeth longer than the campanulate part, the lower one very slightly longer than the others, the two upper teeth not or very slightly fused.
    Corolla
    Petals 13–15 mm long, purplish or sometimes blue; standard subrectangular to suborbicular, truncate to slightly cordate at the base; lower margin of keel curved ± through 90°. Petals 13–15 mm long, purplish or sometimes blue; standard subrectangular to suborbicular, truncate to slightly cordate at the base; lower margin of keel curved ± through 90°.
    Pistil
    Ovary appressed-pubescent, style pubescent.
    Habit
    Shrub 0.3–2 m high. Shrub 0.3–2 m high.
    Indumentum
    Young branches densely brown or greyish spreading-pubescent to tomentose.
    Leaves
    Leaves with (5)7–12 pairs of leaflets; petiole and rachis ± appressed to spreading-tomentose, the hairs sometimes noticeably unequal; leaflets up to 25(30) × 8(10) mm, somewhat leathery, elliptic-oblong, rounded at the base, rounded to truncate at the apex, strongly mucronate, the margins somewhat incurved towards the upper surface, upper surface glabrous, lower surface densely appressed-pubescent and often subsericeous; stipules 4–5 × 1–1.5 mm, narrowly triangular. Leaves with (5)7–12 pairs of leaflets; petiole and rachis ± appressed to spreading-tomentose, the hairs sometimes noticeably unequal; leaflets up to 25(30) × 8(10) mm, somewhat leathery, elliptic-oblong, rounded at the base, rounded to truncate at the apex, strongly mucronate, the margins somewhat incurved towards the upper surface, upper surface glabrous, lower surface densely appressed-pubescent and often subsericeous; stipules 4–5 × 1–1.5 mm, narrowly triangular.
    Stamens
    Stamen tube c.9 mm long. Stamen tube c.9 mm long.
    Ovary
    Ovary appressed-pubescent, style pubescent.
    Fruits
    Pod not seen. Pod not seen.
    Distribution
    Endemic to the Chimanimani Mountains where it occurs from the foot of the first range to the quartzite crags; up to at least 2135 m.

    Images

    Distribution

    Found In:

    Zimbabwe

    Tephrosia chimanimaniana Brummitt appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Identified Reference Herbarium Specimen Type Status
    Dec 18, 1964 Loveridge, J.P. [73], Zimbabwe K000511408
    Dec 18, 1964 Swynnerton, C.F.M. [1464], Zimbabwe K000511410
    Dec 18, 1964 Wild, H. [4589], Zimbabwe K000262823 holotype
    Watmough, R. [639], Mozambique K000511409

    First published in Bol. Soc. Brot., sér. 2, 41: 365 (1968)

    Accepted in:

    • [2] (2007) Flora Zambesiaca 3(3): 1-258. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    • [4] Lock, J.M. (1989) Legumes of Africa a check-list . Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

    Literature

    • [1] Contu, S. (2009). Tephrosia chimanimaniana. Assessment using IUCN Categories and Criteria 3.1 (IUCN 2001). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • [3] Brummitt, R. K., Harder, D. K., Lewis, G. P., Lock, J. M., Polhill, R. M. & Verdcourt, B. (2007). Flora Zambesiaca, Volume 3: Leguminosae. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • [5] in Bol. Soc. Brot., sér.2, 41: 365 (1968).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
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    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (2017). Published on the internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp
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    [C] © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Species Profiles
    Kew Species Profiles
    [D]
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