1. Family: Xanthorrhoeaceae Dumort.
    1. Genus: Aloe L.
      1. Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f.

        Aloe vera is well known for its succulent leaves and the many uses of the gel obtained from them. This species is widely cultivated and, along with other members of the genus Aloe, is also the subject of intense scientific study with regard to the many claimed therapeutic properties.

    [KSP]

    Kew Species Profiles

    General Description
    Aloe vera has been described as a wonder-plant. The colourless jelly-like leaf parenchyma tissue is used in an extraordinary array of everyday products, from dishwashing liquid to yoghurt.

    Aloe vera is well known for its succulent leaves and the many uses of the gel obtained from them. This species is widely cultivated and, along with other members of the genus Aloe, is also the subject of intense scientific study with regard to the many claimed therapeutic properties.

    Species Profile

    Geography and distribution

    Aloe verais cultivated around the world. It has escaped from cultivation and become naturalised in the Mediterranean, north Africa, the Indian subcontinent, South America and the Caribbean. 

    Description

    Overview:  Aloe verais a short-stemmed shrubby aloe, frequently suckering and forming dense clumps.

    Leaves:The leaves are succulent, erect, forming a dense rosette. The leaves are greyish green, growing to about 50 cm long, with margins that are pinkish with many small spines. The leaf surfaces are sometimes marked with white flecks or spots.

    Flowers: The flowers are yellow, tubular, and up to 3 cm long, with anthers and stigma protruding. The flowers are borne in cylindrical racemes on a branched panicle up to 90 cm tall.

    Aloe vera was formerly classified as part of the Asphodelaceae family, but this is now included in Xanthorrhoeaceae.

    Uses

    Aloe vera has been used for centuries and it is more popular today than ever. It is cultivated around the world as a crop for its colourless jelly-like leaf parenchyma known as 'aloe gel'. It is used for a variety of purposes in food, food supplements, herbal remedies and cosmetics.

    Aloe vera leaf parenchyma (aloe gel) may be effective when used on the skin against psoriasis, burns, frostbite, and sores caused by the  Herpes simplex virus. Research has shown that, taken orally, aloe gel can help to lower cholesterol levels in people with high cholesterol, and can help to lower blood glucose levels in people with type II diabetes.

    The green outer layer of the leaves of  Aloe verayields a bitter, yellow exudate which has very different properties from those of the colourless parenchyma. The bitter leaf exudate has traditionally been used as a laxative. However, research has indicated that the active constituents may have harmful effects and can interact with other medicines and herbal remedies. It should not be given to children or to pregnant or breastfeeding women.

    Threats and conservation

    Aloe vera is naturalised around the world and is common in cultivation. It is not considered to be threatened.

    Cultivation

    Aloe verais easy to cultivate, with no special requirements. It should be grown in a well-draining gritty mix. The compost should be soaked when watering during the growing season, and allowed to dry out between waterings. It can be grown in a cool/warm glasshouse and put outside for the summer. Plants can offset profusely, so propagation is by potting up offsets.

    Aloe vera at Kew

    Aloe vera, and other Aloe species, can be seen growing in the Princess of Wales Conservatory.

    Behind the scenes, scientists in the Herbarium and Jodrell Laboratory at Kew have been carrying out research on Aloe veraand its relatives in the genus Aloefor decades and have published on topics such as the chemistry of the leaves, taxonomy, hybridisation, genetics and leaf surface sculpturing.

    Read Kew Science blog 'Unravelling the evolutionary history of Aloe vera and its relatives'

    Distribution
    Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Yemen
    Ecology
    Aloe vera is a cultivated plant but naturalised populations occur in dry, often rocky and exposed areas.
    Conservation
    Not considered to be threatened.
    Hazards

    The bitter yellow leaf exudate can be harmful and should not be taken by children, or by pregnant or breastfeeding women. The colourless leaf parenchyma (gel) can occasionally cause skin irritation.

    [KSP]
    Use
    Food, food supplements, herbal remedies, cosmetics.
    [UPPd]
    Unspecified Food
    Alimento (jugo, yogurt, gelatinas). Unspecified plant parts - Fichas tecnicas
    Inflammation
    Antiinflamatorio. Unspecified plant parts - Fichas tecnicas
    Abnormalities
    Cáncer del estómago. Unspecified plant parts - Fichas tecnicas Tumores. Unspecified plant parts - Fichas tecnicas
    Injuries
    Cicatrizante. Unspecified plant parts - Fichas tecnicas Antiséptico. Unspecified plant parts - Fichas tecnicas Apostemas o contusiones. Unspecified plant parts - Fichas tecnicas
    Genitourinary System Disorders
    Cólicos. Unspecified plant parts - Fichas tecnicas
    Digestive System Disorders
    Colitis. Unspecified plant parts - Fichas tecnicas
    Ornamentals
    Como ornamental. Unspecified plant parts - Fichas tecnicas
    Metabolic System Disorders
    Diabetes. Unspecified plant parts - Fichas tecnicas
    Pain
    Dolor de cabeza. Unspecified plant parts - Fichas tecnicas
    Other Medicinal Disorders
    Dolor de muelas. Unspecified plant parts - Fichas tecnicas Bienorreas. Unspecified plant parts - Fichas tecnicas
    Endocrine System Disorders
    Para úlceras en riñones o vejiga. Unspecified plant parts - Fichas tecnicas
    Respiratory System Disorders
    Problemas respiratorios (bronquitis, tos, catarro, resfriado). Unspecified plant parts - Fichas tecnicas
    Skin or Subcutaneous Cellular Tissue Disorders
    Quemaduras por excesiva exposición a rayos 'X' o por radiación atómica. Unspecified plant parts - Fichas tecnicas
    Sacred Spiritual Plants
    Talismán para alejar a los malos espíritus. Unspecified plant parts - Fichas tecnicas
    Infections & Infestations
    Tisis declarada. Unspecified plant parts - Fichas tecnicas

    Images

    Distribution

    Found In:

    Saudi Arabia, Yemen

    Introduced Into:

    Algeria, Arizona, Aruba, Ascension, Assam, Bahamas, Baleares, Bangladesh, Bermuda, Bolivia, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Cayman Is., China South-Central, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Florida, Galápagos, Greece, Guatemala, Gulf States, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, India, Italy, Jamaica, Juan Fernández Is., Kriti, Leeward Is., Libya, Madeira, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Morocco, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Oman, Pakistan, Peru, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Réunion, Sicilia, Spain, Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Texas, Thailand, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turks-Caicos Is., Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is.

    Common Names

    English
    Aloe vera

    Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Fl. Indica: 83 (1768)

    Accepted in:

    • [4] Dimpoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013) Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist . Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical
    • [5] Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013) Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh , Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • [7] (2012) Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192
    • [8] (2011) Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 220: 5-10
    • [9] Carter, S., Lavranos, J.J., Newton, L.E. & Walker, C.C. (2011) Aloes. The definitive guide . Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • [11] (2010) Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • [14] Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008) Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas . SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • [15] (2007) Makinoa , n.s., 6: 25-62
    • [16] (2005) Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 52: 1-415
    • [17] (2004) Journal de Botanique Société de Botanique de France 24: 67-78
    • [19] Albano, P.-O. (2003) La Conaissance des Plantes Exotiques . Édisud, Aix-en-Provence.
    • [20] Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2002) Flora of North America North of Mexico 26: 1-723. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • [21] Fournet, J. (2002) Flore illustrée des phanérogames de Guadeloupe et de Martinique 2: 1325-2538. Gondwana editions.
    • [22] Chaudhary, S.A. (2001) Flora of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 3: 1-368. Ministry of Agriculture & Water, Riyadh.
    • [24] Stevens, W.D. & al. (eds.) (2001) Flora de Nicaragua 1: 1-943. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • [26] van Proosdij, A.S.J. (2001) Arnoldo's Zakflora ed. 3: 1-287. Walburg Pers, Zutphen.
    • [27] (2000) Flora of China 24: 1-431. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • [28] Dassanayake (ed.) (2000) A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 14: 1-307. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • [30] Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000) Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E. . Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
    • [31] Liogier, H.A. & Martorell, L.F. (2000) Flora of Puerto Rico and Adjacent Islands: a Systematic Synopsis ed. 2: 1-382. Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, San Juan.
    • [33] Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánes, S. (eds.) (1999) Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador . Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • [35] Wood, J.R.I. (1997) A Handbook of the Yemen Flora . The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • [36] Bono, G. (1996) Flora Y Vegetacion del Estado Táchira Venezuela . Museo Regionaledi Scienze Naturali, Torino.
    • [37] Govaerts, R. (1995) World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 1-529. MIM, Deurne.
    • [38] (1994) Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F..
    • [40] Braco, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993) Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru . Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • [42] (1992) Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153
    • [43] (1986) Flora of Australia 46: 1-247. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • [44] Hoyos F., J. (1985) Flora de la Isla Margarita Venezuela . Sociedad de Ciencias Naturales La Salle.
    • [45] Meikle, R.D. (1985) Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • [46] Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1984) Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 8: 1-632. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • [47] Proctor, G.R. (1984) Flora of the Cayman Islands . Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London.
    • [48] Brown, L.C. (1982) The Flora and Fauna of St Helena . Land Resources Development Centre, Surbiton, England.
    • [49] Correll, D.S. & Correll, H.B. (1982) Flora of the Bahama Archipelago . J.Cramer, Vaduz.
    • [51] Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980) Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
    • [52] (1978) Flora of Thailand 1: 1-694. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
    • [53] Hara, H., Stearn, W.T. & Williams, H.J. (1978) An Enumeration of the Flowering Plants of Nepal 1: 1-154. Trustees of British Museum, London.
    • [55] Jafri, S.M.H. & El-Gadi, A. (eds.) (1978) Flora of Libya 57: 1-81. Al-Faateh University, Tripoli.
    • [57] Adams, C.D. (1972) Flowering Plants of Jamaica . University of the West Indies, Mona.
    • [59] Maire, R. (1958) Flore de l'Afrique du Nord 5: 1-307. Paul Lechevalier, Paris.
    • [61] Moscoso, R.H. (1943) Catalogus Florae Domingensis . New York.
    • [62] Britton, N. (1918) Flora of Bermuda . Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.

    Literature

    • [1] (2016) Phytotaxa 250: 1-431
    • [2] Sykes, W.R. (2016) Flora of the Cook Islands . National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • [3] Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2013) Flora Iberica 20: 1-651. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
    • [6] Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013) Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh , Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • [10] Carter, S., Lavranos, J.J., Newton, L.E. & Walker, C.C. (2011) Aloes. The definitive guide . Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • [12] (2009) Pleione 3(1): 45-49
    • [13] Jellin, J. M., Gregory, P. J., et al. (2008). Pharmacist's Letter/Prescriber's Letter Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. 10th Ed. Therapeutic Research Faculty, Stockton.
    • [18] Fairhurst, W. (2004) Flowering Plants of Ascension island . Higham Press, Shirland, Alfreton, England.
    • [23] Chaudhary, S.A. (2001) Flora of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 3: 1-368. Ministry of Agriculture & Water, Riyadh.
    • [25] Stevens, W.D. & al. (eds.) (2001) Flora de Nicaragua 1: 1-943. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • [29] Dassanayake (ed.) (2000) A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 14: 1-307. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • [32] Liogier, H.A. & Martorell, L.F. (2000) Flora of Puerto Rico and Adjacent Islands: a Systematic Synopsis ed. 2: 1-382. Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, San Juan.
    • [34] Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánes, S. (eds.) (1999) Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador . Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • [39] (1993) Las Monocotiledóneas Mexicanas una Sinopsis Florística 1(2): 1-70. Consejo Nacional de la Flora de México, México D.F..
    • [41] Braco, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993) Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru . Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • [50] Correll, D.S. & Correll, H.B. (1982) Flora of the Bahama Archipelago . J.Cramer, Vaduz.
    • [54] Hara, H., Stearn, W.T. & Williams, H.J. (1978) An Enumeration of the Flowering Plants of Nepal 1: 1-154. Trustees of British Museum, London.
    • [56] Jafri, S.M.H. & El-Gadi, A. (eds.) (1978) Flora of Libya 57: 1-81. Al-Faateh University, Tripoli.
    • [58] Reynolds, G. W. (1966). The Aloes of Tropical Africa and Madagascar. Aloes Book Fund, Mbabane.

      Reynolds, T. (ed.) (2004). Aloes: the Genus Aloe. CRC Press, Boca Raton.

    • [60] Leon, H. (1946) Flora de Cuba 1: 1-441. Cultural S. A., La Habana.
    • [63] Fichas tecnicas

    Sources

    International Plant Names Index
    The International Plant Names Index (2016). Published on the Internet http://www.ipni.org
    [A] © Copyright 2016 International Plant Names Index. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Species Profiles
    Kew Species Profiles
    [B] http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    [C]

    Kew Library Art and Archives
    [D] Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Project MGU – Useful Plants Project (UPP) database
    [E]

    World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
    World Checklist of Selected Plant Families(2016). Published on the Internet http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    [F] See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    [G] © Copyright 2016 International Plant Names Index and World Checkist of Selected Plant Families. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0