1. Family: Asparagaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Scilla L.
      1. Scilla verna Huds.

        Scilla verna is found in exposed coastal habitats around much of the western and northern coasts of western Europe and along the eastern coast of Ireland. It is one of only two squills native to the UK, the other being the autumn-flowering Scilla autumnalis (autumn squill).

    [KSP]
    General Description
    A hardy spring bulb with attractive blue-violet flowers, spring squill is native to western Europe.

    Scilla verna is found in exposed coastal habitats around much of the western and northern coasts of western Europe and along the eastern coast of Ireland. It is one of only two squills native to the UK, the other being the autumn-flowering Scilla autumnalis (autumn squill).

    Spring squill is a member of the Asparagaceae (subfamily Scilloideae). The generic name Scilla derives from the Greek skilla, which became the Latin scilla and was the ancient Greek name for another squill ( Urginea maritima). The specific epithet verna comes from vernum, Latin for spring.

    Although it can grow in large colonies in the wild, Scilla verna is an attractive ornamental species that can be appreciated as a specimen plant in containers and in rock gardens. It can also be planted densely in lawns to produce a carpet of blue flowers in spring.

    Species Profile

    Geography and distribution

    Spring squill is native to western Europe, from northern Portugal to Føroyar (Faroe Islands). It is found up to 2,000 m above sea level.

    In its native coastal grassland and heath habitats it is often seen in association with Armeria maritima (thrift), Silene dioica (sea campion), Calluna vulgaris (heather), Festuca ovina (sheep’s fescue), Lotus corniculatus (bird’s-foot trefoil), Plantago maritima (sea plantain) and Thymus praecox (wild thyme).

    It is a key component of the maritime heath community H7 ( Calluna vulgaris-Scilla verna heath), as described in the British National Vegetation Classification System.

    Description

    Overview: A bulbous perennial up to 20 cm tall. Bulbs are ovoid and 10–20 mm in diameter.

    Leaves: 2–7 basal, linear, deep-green leaves, measuring 3–20 cm × 2–5 mm.

    Flowers: Star-like, lilac-blue to violet, each with a bluish basal bract. Flowers have six tepals (outer flower parts not differentiated into sepals and petals) and are grouped into dense inflorescences containing 2–12 flowers. Flowers contain both female and male parts and are unscented.

    Fruits: Capsules, splitting open from the top when ripe.

    Seeds: Black, ovoid, with small appendages.

    Uses

    Scilla verna is cultivated as an ornamental for its attractive display of delicate violet-blue flowers in spring. There are no known medicinal uses.

    Cultivation

    Spring squill is grown in the Rock Garden at Kew in free-draining soil topped with a fine grit layer, which aids drainage and helps display the plant. Similarly, potted specimens in the Davies Alpine House are grown in grit-topped, free-draining compost containing coir, sterilised soil, grit and sand.

    Scilla verna can be propagated from seed collected in late summer. Autumn-sown seed should germinate the following spring and flower within three years. Plants can also be propagated vegetatively by dividing the bulbs during the dormant period.

    This species at Kew

    Spring squill has been cultivated at Kew since 1789. It can be seen growing in the ‘British natives’ section of Kew’s Rock Garden, to the right of the stream. When in flower, it is also often displayed in the Davies Alpine House. It can also be seen growing at Wakehurst.

    Dried and alcohol-preserved specimens of Scilla verna are held in Kew’s Herbarium, where they are available to researchers by appointment. Further details of some of these specimens can be seen in Kew’s Herbarium Catalogue.

    Distribution
    Portugal, United Kingdom
    Ecology
    Short, dry, lime-rich grassland, and vegetated or rocky sea cliffs or maritime heath.
    Conservation
    Not assessed according to IUCN Red List criteria.
    Hazards

    The whole plant is poisonous, and ingestion may cause nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, cardiac problems and in some cases death.

    Images

    Distribution

    Found In:

    France, Føroyar, Great Britain, Ireland, Norway, Portugal, Spain

    Common Names

    English
    Spring squill

    Scilla verna Huds. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Identified Reference Herbarium Specimen Type Status
    Sealy, J.R. 2700.044
    Hubbard, C.E. 34462.000

    First published in Fl. Angl., ed. 2: 142 (1778)

    Accepted in:

    • [1] Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2013) Flora Iberica 20: 1-651. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
    • [22] Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980) Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.

    Literature

    • [2] Angiosperm Phylogeny Website (2012). (Accessed 26 April 2012).
    • [3] Biological Records Centre (BRC) (2012). Online Atlas of the British and Irish Flora: Scilla verna. (Accessed 19 November 2012).
    • [4] IUCN (2012). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, Version 2012.2. (Accessed 14 November 2012).
    • [5] JNCC (Joint Nature Conservation Committee) (2012). The Vascular Plant Red Data List for Great Britain: Conservation Designations for UK Taxa. (Accessed 29 April 2012).
    • [6] WCSP (2012). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (Accessed 06 November 2012).
    • [7] Stace, C. (2010). New Flora of the British Isles, 3rd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
    • [8] The Plant List (2010). Scilla verna. (Accessed 19 November 2012).
    • [9] Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161: 105–121.
    • [10] Chase, M. W. & Reveal, J. L. (2009). A phylogenetic classification of the land plants to accompany APG III. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161: 122–127.
    • [11] Cope, T. (2009). The Wild Flora of Kew Gardens: A Cumulative Checklist from 1759. Kew Publishing, Surrey.
    • [12] Gledhill, D. (2008). The Names of Plants, 4th Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
    • [13] Mabberley, D. J. (2008). Mabberley’s Plant-book: a Portable Dictionary of Plants, their Classification and Uses, 3rd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
    • [14] Nelson, L. S., Shih, R. D. & Balick, M. J. (2007). Handbook of Poisonous and Injurious Plants. New York Botanical Garden/Springer, New York.
    • [15] Phillips, R. & Rix, M. (2002). The Botanical Garden: Volume II, Perennials and Annuals. Macmillan, London.
    • [16] Mabey, R. (1996). Flora Britannica. Sinclair-Stevenson, London.
    • [17] Ingrouille, M. (1995). Historical Ecology of the British Flora. Chapman & Hall, London.
    • [18] Halliwell, B. (1992). The Propagation of Alpine Plants and Dwarf Bulbs. Batsford, London.
    • [19] Rodwell, J. S. (1991). British Plant Communities Volume 2 - Mires and Heaths. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
    • [20] Grey-Wilson, C. & Mathew, B. (1981). Bulbs: The Bulbous Plants of Europe and their Allies. Collins, London.
    • [21] Tutin, T. G., Heywood, V. H., Burges, N. A., Moore, D. M., Valentine, D. H., Walters, S. M & Webb, P. A. (1980). Flora Europaea, Volume 5: Alismataceae to Orchidaceae (Monocotyledons). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
    • [23] Botanical Society of the British Isles (BSBI). Maps Scheme. (Accessed 19 November 2012).

    Sources

    International Plant Names Index
    The International Plant Names Index (2016). Published on the Internet http://www.ipni.org
    [A] © Copyright 2016 International Plant Names Index. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Species Profiles
    Kew Species Profiles
    [B] http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    [C]

    World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
    World Checklist of Selected Plant Families(2016). Published on the Internet http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    [D] See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    [E] © Copyright 2016 International Plant Names Index and World Checkist of Selected Plant Families. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0