1. Family: Malvaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Sida L.
      1. Sida alba L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Africa, Arabian Peninsula.

    [FTEA]

    Malvaceae, Bernard Verdcourt & Geoffrey Mwachala. Pavonia, B Verdcourt; Kosteletzkya, OJ Blanchard Jr.; Gossypium, P Fryxell & B Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2009

    Type
    Type: Cult. Hort. Upsala, Linn. Herb. 866/2 (LINN, lecto.)
    Habit
    Annual, perennial or subshrubby herb 10–90 cm tall, often branched from base, the stems erect or slightly decumbent, densely stellate-pubescent, later glabrescent and often purplish brown
    Leaves
    Leaves discolorous, elliptic or oblong, 0.8–5 × 0.5–3 cm, acute to rounded at the apex, truncate to rounded at base, regularly sharply serrate, dark green and thinly pubescent above, white or grey tomentose beneath; petiole 0.5–2.5(–4) cm long; stipules linear-subulate, 6–10 mm long, often with spurs on stem at their base
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary in leaf axils or in 4–5-flowered clusters; pedicel 0.3–2.5 cm long; calyx 4–6 mm long, cupular, 10-ribbed, lobed to about the middle, pubescent, the lobes triangular, acute, apiculate
    Corolla
    Corolla white, yellow or cream-buff; petals 4–6 mm long.
    Stamens
    Staminal column 2 mm long, glabrous
    Fruits
    Mericarps 5, 2–3 mm long excluding the birostrate beak with awns 2 mm long, puberulous; basal part of back thin, white and papery, breaking up to release the seed; sides thin walled, striate, the lateral edges distinct and straight.
    Ecology
    Grassland, grassland with scattered trees and bushes, Acacia woodland, riverine flats, roadsides, weed in old cultivations, wheat etc., often on black cotton soil; 450–1900 m
    Note
    I have followed Marais (1987) and Vollesen (1995) in keeping S. alba and S. spinosa separate but Sivarajan & Pradeep (Malv. S. Penins. India: 280 (1996)) and many others combine them.
    Distribution
    Flora districts: U1 U2 U3 U4 K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 T1 T2 T3 T4 T6 T8 Range: Widespread in tropical and South Africa, Arabia, Mascarenes, also in India and America
    [FZ]

    Malvaceae, A. W. Exell. Flora Zambesiaca 1:2. 1961

    Habit
    Annual or perennial woody or suffruticose plant 30–75 cm. tall, often branched from the base, with somewhat virgate erect or occasionally somewhat trailing branches, covered with a dense short stellate pubescence; stems faintly angular to terete, often soon purplish-brown in colour, at length glabrescent.
    Leaves
    Leaf-lamina 2–5 × 0·5–3 cm., usually narrowly ovate but varying from oblong to lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, apex usually narrowed and subacute but often somewhat rounded, margin sharply and regularly serrate, base usually truncate to rounded sometimes somewhat cordate, upper surface dark green drying brown, thinly and shortly pubescent, glabrescent, lower surface whitish to ash-grey, softly tomentellous; petiole up to c. 3 cm. long, slender, somewhat purplish in older leaves, shortly pubescent, with a callus at the base that is often shortly spinescent; stipules 6–10 mm. long, usually persistent, setaceous.
    Flowers
    Flowers white to yellow, solitary or fascicled in the leaf-axils; pedicels rarely more than 15 mm. long, slender to filiform, articulated in the upper 3–5 mm.
    Calyx
    Calyx c. 6 mm. long, cupular, 10-ribbed, tomentellous, lobed to about the middle; lobes deltoid, acute, minutely mucronate-apiculate.
    Corolla
    Petals 5–6 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Mericarps 5, 4–5 mm. long (including the awns), finely reticulate, with 2 setaceous awns, opening somewhat irregularly at the base.
    Seeds
    Seeds c. 1·5 mm. long, dark brown, almost smooth, glabrous.
    [FWTA]

    Malvaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

    Habit
    A woody herb, with branches sometimes lax and trailing
    Flowers
    Flowers small, white.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Cape Verde, Congo, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Gambia, Gulf of Guinea Is., Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Mauritius, Réunion

    Common Names

    English
    Spiny sida

    Sida alba L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Dec 1, 2007 Festo, L. [2448], Kenya K000197500
    McFadyen [s.n.], Jamaica K000528347
    McFadyen [s.n.], Jamaica K000528348 lectotype
    McFadyen [s.n.], Jamaica K000528349
    Hagerup, O. [370], Mali K000386650
    Davey, J.T. [178], Mali K000386651

    First published in Sp. Pl. ed. 2: 960 (1763)

    Accepted by

    • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Verdcourt, B. & Mwachala, G.M. (2009). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Malvaceae: 1-170.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1987). Flore des Mascareignes 51-62: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.

    Not accepted by

    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2015). Flora of North America North of Mexico 6: 1-468. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford. [Cited as Sida spinosa.]
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden. [Cited as Sida spinosa.]
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers. [Cited as Sida spinosa.]
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville. [Cited as Sida spinosa.]
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1997). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 11: 1-420. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta. [Cited as Sida spinosa.]
    • Cervantes Aceves, N. (1992). La Familia Malvaceae en el Estado de Jalisco, Mexico: 1-393. Editorial Universidad de Guadalajara. [Cited as Sida spinosa.]
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College. [Cited as Sida spinosa.]

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Sp. Pl., ed. 2, 2: 960 (1763).
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Verdcourt, B. & Mwachala, G.M. (2009). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Malvaceae: 1-170.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1987). Flore des Mascareignes 51-62: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Boulos, Fl. Egypt 2: 100, 321, t. 25, fig. 5 (2000).
    • Thulin, Fl. Somalia 2: 80, fig. 47B (1999)
    • Wood, Handb. Yemen Fl.: 106 (1997)
    • Fl. Eth. & Eritr. 2 (2): 251, fig. 82.26.6 (1995)
    • U.K.W.F. ed. 2: 101 (1994)
    • Marais, Fl. Mascar. 51, Malvaceés: 11, t. 1, fig. 5 (1987)
    • Abedin, Fl. W. Pak. 130 (Malvaceae): 81, fig. 19F (1979)
    • F.C.B. 10: 163 (1963)
    • F.Z. 1: 477 (1961)
    • Keay, F.W.T.A. ed. 2, 1(2): 339 (1958)
    • T.T.C.L.: 306 (1949)
    • F.P.N.A. 1: 586 (1948)
    • Exell & Mendonça, C.F.A. 1: 148 (1937)
    • Sp. Pl. ed. 2: 960 (1763)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/