1. Family: Moraceae Gaudich.
    1. Genus: Artocarpus J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.
      1. Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson ex F.A.Zorn) Fosberg

        Breadfruit is a tropical tree, commonly cultivated for food in the Pacific Islands, Malesia (Malaysia, Indonesia, New Guinea, the Philippines and Brunei) and southern India. The fruits are large and green or yellowish, with a lumpy or spiny surface. They are full of starch and may be cooked whole, stuffed with meat, coconut or fruit, or stored as a fermented mash. The taste when cooked has been compared to bread or potato.

    [FTEA]
    Distribution
    Native of tropical Asia.
    Habit
    Tree.
    Leaves
    Lamina mostly ± 30–50 × 15–20 cm., pinnately incised.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences in the leaf-axils.
    [KSP]
    General Description
    Breadfruit is a tall tropical tree with divided leaves and large green to yellow fruits with an edible, starchy, white or cream-coloured flesh.

    Breadfruit is a tropical tree, commonly cultivated for food in the Pacific Islands, Malesia (Malaysia, Indonesia, New Guinea, the Philippines and Brunei) and southern India. The fruits are large and green or yellowish, with a lumpy or spiny surface. They are full of starch and may be cooked whole, stuffed with meat, coconut or fruit, or stored as a fermented mash. The taste when cooked has been compared to bread or potato.

    Species Profile

    Geography and distribution

    Artocarpus altilis is thought to be native to northern New Guinea, but it has been widely cultivated in south-east Asia and the Pacific region for thousands of years, and is now cultivated throughout the tropics.

    Description

    Overview: Breadfruit is an evergreen tree growing up to 26 m tall, but most commonly measuring around 15 m. The twigs contain a milky latex.

    Leaves:The large leaves are up to 30 cm long, and are deeply cut into seven or nine pointed lobes.

    Flowers:The male and female inflorescences are borne separately on the same tree, the male ones being sausage-shaped, producing masses of pollen, while the female ones are club-shaped. Pollination is carried out by fruit bats, but cultivated varieties produce fruit without pollination. The fruit is a highly specialised structure called a syncarp (multiple fruit produced by the adhesion of fruits from a number of flowers).

    Fruits: The fruits are about 15 cm across and 30 cm long, with the persistent remains of about two thousand female flowers each showing as a hexagon on the skin of the fruit. Cultivars grown for their edible fruit do not normally produce seeds. Seeded varieties are grown for their edible seeds.

    Common names

    Common names include: breadfruit, breadnut (English); beta (Vanuatu); bia, bulo, nimbalu (Solomon Islands); kapiak (Papua New Guinea); kuru (Cook Islands); meduu (Palau); mei (mai) (Federated States of Micronesia, Kiribati, Marshalls, Marquesas, Tonga, Tuvalu); mos (Kosrae); ‘ulu (Hawai‘i, Samoa, Rotuma, Tuvalu); ‘uru (Society Islands); uto, buco (Fiji).

    Uses

    Breadfruit is the staple diet of many people in the Pacific Islands. The fruits contain 70% water and 30% starch and sugars, with significant amounts of vitamin C and small amounts of other vitamins and minerals. The fruit pulp of seedless varieties is preferred for eating. Varieties containing seeds are sometimes referred to as ‘breadnut’. The seeds can be boiled, baked or fried and have the flavour of groundnuts (peanuts).

    The milky latex of the tree can be used for caulking boats. The leaves and latex are used medicinally to treat fungal diseases, to ease sprains or to treat diarrhoea. Herbal tea can be made from the leaves. The inner bark can be woven into a coarse cloth or rope. The timber of breadfruit is resistant to termites and is used for building houses and boats.

    Bligh’s mission to take breadfruit to the Caribbean

    On his circumnavigation of the globe, Captain James Cook (1728-1779), accompanied by the young Joseph Banks, found breadfruit being grown and eaten as a staple crop on the Pacific Islands, particularly on Tahiti. On their return to England, the Admiralty sent Lieutenant William Bligh to the Pacific on HMS Bounty in 1787, at Banks’ suggestion, to collect young breadfruit plants and take them to the Caribbean to help feed the slaves on the plantations there.

    Bligh and his crew successfully collected over 1,000 seedlings, but shortly after leaving Tahiti in 1789 the crew mutinied, reportedly because they were unwilling to leave the ‘paradise’ of Tahiti where several of them had developed romantic attachments to Tahitian women. Bligh and 19 men who were loyal to him, were put into a 7 metre open boat and set adrift, while the mutineers, led by Fletcher Christian, sailed back to Tahiti in HMS Bounty. They picked up livestock and Tahitian men and women, and eventually sailed on to the uninhabited Pitcairn Island, where they settled. Descendants of the Bounty mutineers and their Tahitian partners still live on Pitcairn today.

    Remarkably, without even a chart, Bligh and his loyal men successfully navigated 5,822 km in 47 days to reach Timor, and eventually arrived back in England in 1790. Tragically, not all the crew returned. David Nelson (the expedition's botanist, who had received his training at Kew under Joseph Banks and William Aiton) died on Timor. Accounts vary as to the cause of his death, but he had probably become exhausted by the perilous voyage across the Pacific. He appears to have contracted a fever whilst on Timor, but there is a suggestion he may also have eaten poisonous berries while out plant-collecting.

    In 1792 Bligh, by then a Captain, was again in Tahiti, and this time left with over 2,600 breadfruit plants and successfully introduced breadfruit to St Vincent and Jamaica. Several of the trees raised from suckers from Bligh’s original introduction now grow in the St Vincent and the Grenadines Botanic Gardens in Kingstown, St Vincent.

    Breadfruit and human migration

    Using DNA fingerprinting, scientists are able to determine the relationships between closely related species of Artocarpus and breadfruit cultivars. Most Melanesian and Polynesian cultivars seem to have arisen over generations of vegetative propagation and selection from Artocarpus camansi(native to New Guinea), while most Micronesian breadfruit cultivars appear to be the result of crossing between A. camansi-derived breadfruit and a related species, A. mariannensis(native to the Mariana Islands and Palau).

    Because breadfruit is largely dependent on humans for dispersal, this botanical research has been correlated with ideas regarding the human colonisation of Oceania. The results support the theory that humans from the west travelled via Melanesia (Solomon Islands, Vanuatu etc.) to settle in Polynesia (the islands in the central and southern Pacific), and that further long-distance migration also took place from Melanesia northwards to Micronesia.

    Millennium Seed Bank: Seed storage

    Kew's Millennium Seed Bank Partnership aims to save plant life world wide, focusing on plants under threat and those of most use in the future. Seeds are dried, packaged and stored at a sub-zero temperature in our seed bank vault.

    Description of seeds:Average 1,000 seed weight = 5,898 gNumber of seed collections stored in the Millennium Seed Bank:NoneSeed storage behaviour:Recalcitrant (the seeds of this plant are not amenable to long term frozen storage as they do not survive drying to the required levels)

    Cultivation

    Artocarpus altilisgrows well in tropical climates in deep, fertile alluvial soils, limestone soils and on coastal sands. Some varieties even tolerate brackish water and salt spray. Propagation of seedless varieties (those commonly planted for their edible fruit) is by suckers or root cuttings. Recently, micropropagation has been used to mass-produce uniform clones for planting in commercial orchards.

    This species at Kew

    Breadfruit can be seen growing in the North Wing of the Palm House at Kew. Pressed and dried specimens are held in the Herbarium, where they are available to researchers by appointment. The details of some of these, including images, can be seen online in the Herbarium Catalogue.

    View details and images of specimens online

    Specimens of Artocarpus altilis wood and seeds are held in the Economic Botany Collection in the Sir Joseph Banks Building and are available to researchers by appointment.

    Distribution
    Papua New Guinea
    Ecology
    Riverine swamp forest and lowland evergreen rainforest.
    Conservation
    Not evaluated according to IUCN Red List criteria, but widely cultivated throughout the tropics.
    Hazards

    None known.

    [KSP]
    Use
    Food plant in the tropics, timber, medicinal, occasionally planted as an ornamental.

    Images

    Distribution

    Found In:

    Caroline Is., Honduras, Maluku, Marianas, New Guinea, Solomon Is., Sulawesi

    Introduced Into:

    Andaman Is., Bangladesh, Cameroon, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Central American Pac, Chagos Archipelago, Cook Is., Cuba, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Fiji, Gambia, Gambia, Gilbert Is., Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, Haiti, Haiti, Hawaii, India, Jamaica, Jamaica, Jawa, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Line Is., Malaya, Maldives, Maldives, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Mexico Southeast, Nauru, Nicobar Is., Niue, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Samoa, Santa Cruz Is., Seychelles, Seychelles, Society Is., Southwest Caribbean, Sumatera, Taiwan, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tubuai Is., Tuvalu, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is.

    Common Names

    English
    Breadfruit

    Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson ex F.A.Zorn) Fosberg appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Identified Reference Herbarium Specimen Type Status
    Feb 24, 2005 Williams, R. S. [360], Philippines K000228289
    Feb 24, 2005 unknown [1547], Philippines K000228290
    Jan 1, 1990 Christophersen, E. [451], Samoa K001107025
    Jan 1, 1990 Christophersen, E. [2400], Samoa K001107026
    Jan 1, 1990 Christopherso, E. [2398], Samoa K001107027
    Fosberg, F.R. [32110], Micronesia K001107023
    Wong, C.Y.C. [32], Micronesia K001107024
    Prance, G.T. [30871], Samoa K000809335
    Prance, G.T. [30870], Samoa K000809336

    First published in J. Washington Acad. Sci. 31: 95 (1941)

    Accepted in:

    • [2] (2012) Englera 29-2: 1-300
    • [3] (2012) Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192
    • [8] (2011) Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82
    • [9] Onana, J.M. (2011) The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments . National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • [14] Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008) Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas . SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • [23] Govaerts, R. (1995) World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 529. MIM, Deurne.
    • [24] (1994) Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223
    • [27] (1987) Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33
    • [28] (1985) Atoll Research Bulletin 283: 1-18
    • [30] Banks, R.C. (ed.) (1982) Wildlife and wildlife habitat of American Samoa 2: 1-151. U.S. Fisch and Wildlife services, Washington.

    Literature

    • [1] (2012) Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 169: 530-554
    • [4] (2012) Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192
    • [5] (2012) Indian Journal of Forestry 35: 79-84
    • [6] (2011) Acta Phytotaxonomica et Geobotanica 61: 40-50
    • [7] (2011) Botanicheskii Zhurnal. Moscow & Leningrad 96: 99-103
    • [10] The Plant List, Version 1 (2010). Artocarpus altilis.
    • [11] (2009) Casopis Moravského Musea v Brne, Vedy Prírodni 94: 157-205
    • [12] (2008) Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500
    • [13] Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008) Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela . Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • [15] Royal Botanic Gardens Kew (2008). Seed Information Database (SID). Version 7.1.
    • [16] (2006) Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences , ser. 4, 57: 247-355
    • [17] Ragone, D. (2006). Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry - Artocarpus altilis. (Accessed 17 January 2011).
    • [18] Royal Naval Museum Library (2004). Information Sheet – The Mutiny on HMS Bounty.
    • [19] Royal Naval Museum Library (2004). Information Sheet – William Bligh. Available at:
    • [20] Zerega, N.J.C., Ragone, D. & Motley, T.J. (2004). Complex origins of breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis, Moraceae): implications for human migrations in Oceania. Am. J. Bot. 91: 760-766.
    • [21] Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999) Ecology of the Chagos archipelago . Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley.
    • [22] Gonzalez, F., Nelson Diaz, J. & Lowry, P. (1995) Flora Illustrada de San Andrés y Providencia . Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Colombia.
    • [25] Jones, M. (1991) A checklist of Gambian plants . Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • [26] (1988) Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203
    • [29] (1982) Candollea 37: 599-631
    • [31] Boulvert, Y. (1977) Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 3: 1-89. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • [32] (1971) New Zealand Journal of Botany 9: 576-609
    • [33] (1959) Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 220: 1-283
    • [34] (1948) Annales de l'Institut Botanico-Geologique de Marseille , VI, 5-6: 1-56
    • [35] Hooker, J.D. (1828). Artocarpus incisa. Curtis’s Bot. Mag. 55: t 2869-2871.

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    [A] http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    International Plant Names Index
    The International Plant Names Index (2016). Published on the Internet http://www.ipni.org
    [B] © Copyright 2016 International Plant Names Index. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Species Profiles
    Kew Species Profiles
    [C] http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    [D]

    Kew Library Art and Archives
    [E] Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
    World Checklist of Selected Plant Families(2016). Published on the Internet http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    [F] See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    [G] See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
    [H] © Copyright 2016 International Plant Names Index and World Checkist of Selected Plant Families. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
    [I] © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checkist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0