Skip to main content
This species is accepted, and its native range is Artificial hybrid. It is used to treat unspecified medicinal disorders and as a sacred spiritual plant.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Evergreen shrubs or trees
Morphology Leaves
Leaves 1-foliolate, usually with petiole winged and articulated at the tip, gland-dotted
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers usually bisexual, axillary, sometimes clustered, fragrant
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals white
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens in bundles
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a leathery-skinned berry known as a “hesperidium”, segmented and filled with inflated hair-cells full of juice; fruit subglobose, c. 7 cm in diam.; peel orange, thick; pulp very sour and bitter.
Distribution
Cultivated at least in N2.
Vernacular
Seville orange, sour orange (English); liin dhanaan (Somali).

[FTEA]

Rutaceae, J.O. Kokwaro (University of Nairobi). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1982

Morphology General Habit
Tree up to 10 m. high, with slender thorns; stem glabrous.
Morphology Leaves
Leaflet ovate or elliptic, 7–10 cm. long, 4–7 cm. broad; petiole 2–3 cm. long, rather broadly winged.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers axillary, large, white, with only 5–12% staminate; stamens 20–25; ovary 10–12-locular.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit subglobose, ± 7 cm. in diameter; peel thick, rough, strongly aromatic, often orange-red at maturity; pulp very sour and bitter.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 1000 - 2500 m.; Andes, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Arbusto, árbol

[FTEA]

Rutaceae, J.O. Kokwaro (University of Nairobi). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1982

Morphology General Habit
A small tree 2–8 m. high, sometimes spiny.
Morphology Leaves
Leaflet ovate or elliptic to lanceolate, 4–8 cm. long, 1.5–5 cm. broad, margin usually crenate; petiole narrowly winged or margined.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers axillary, 15–25 mm. in diameter; petals 5, white; stamens ± 20; ovary 10–15-locular.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit depressed-globose, 5–8 cm. in diameter, peel thin and loose, yellow or orange-red; pulp sweet and juicy, orange in colour.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology Leaves
Leaves 1-foliolate, usually with petiole winged and articulated at the tip, gland-dotted
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers usually bisexual, axillary, sometimes clustered, fragrant
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals white
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens in bundles
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a leathery-skinned berry known as a “hesperidium”, segmented and filled with inflated hair-cells full of juice; fruit depressed globose, usually bright orange; peel fairly thin and very easily removed; pulp very sweet.
Distribution
Probably cultivated in the Mogadishu area.
Vernacular
Mandarine (English).
Morphology General Habit
Evergreen shrubs or trees

[FTEA]

Rutaceae, J.O. Kokwaro (University of Nairobi). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1982

Morphology General Habit
A spreading tree 10–15 m. high; twigs glabrous.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves smaller than Pomelo, pale green when young; petiole rather broadly winged; lamina ovate, often crenulate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers single or in clusters, axillary, 4–5 cm. in diameter; petals usually 5, white; stamens 20–25; ovary 12–14-locular.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit globose, 8–15 cm. in diameter; rind thin and greenish or pale yellow; pulp mildly bitter.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Evergreen shrubs or trees
Morphology Leaves
Leaves 1-foliolate, usually with petiole winged and articulated at the tip, gland-dotted
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers usually bisexual, axillary, sometimes clustered, fragrant
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals white
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens in bundles
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a leathery-skinned berry known as a “hesperidium”, segmented and filled with inflated hair-cells full of juice; fruit globose, c. 10–15 cm in diam.; peel pale yellow or greenish; pulp mildly bitter.
Distribution
Cultivated particularly in the Mogadishu area (S2)
Vernacular
Grapefruit (English); liin bambeelmo (Somali).

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 200 - 2500 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Llanura del Caribe, Pacífico, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Arbolito, árbol

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Ecology
Alt. 200 - 2500 m.
Distribution
Cultivated in Colombia.

[FTEA]

Rutaceae, J.O. Kokwaro (University of Nairobi). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1982

Morphology General Habit
Tree 6–12 m. high; twigs angled when young, often with stout spines.
Morphology Leaves
Leaflet ovate or ovate-elliptic, 5–15 cm. long, 2–8 cm. broad, glabrous; petiole 1–2.5 cm. long, narrowly winged, articulated.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers single or in small axillary racemes, 2–3 cm. in diameter; petals usually 5, white; stamens 20–25, united into groups; ovary 10–14-locular.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit with peel to 5 mm. thick, tightly adherent, orange or sometimes remaining green; pulp sweet or subacid, juicy.

>

[FSOM]
Use
The citrus fruits are of economic importance.

[FSOM]
Use
Cultivated for its edible fruits

[FSOM]
Use
Much used for the production of juice ("spermuto").

[UPB]
Use Gene Sources
Crop wild relatives which may possess beneficial traits of value in breeding programmes (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Materials Unspecified Materials Chemicals
Materials (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Materials Wood
Used to make spoons (Linares 1994). Used to make carved images of Christ or 'Cristos' (Linares 1994).
Use Medicines Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
Medicinal (Instituto Humboldt 2014).
Use Social Sacred Spiritual Plants
Social and 'Religious' uses (Linares 1994).

Introduced into:

Albania, Algeria, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Brazil West-Central, Cambodia, Canary Is., Cayman Is., Central American Pac, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Haiti, Iraq, Italy, Jamaica, Korea, Laos, Leeward Is., Libya, Madeira, Mauritius, Mexico Southeast, Morocco, Myanmar, New Caledonia, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Rodrigues, Réunion, Santa Cruz Is., Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, Spain, Tadzhikistan, Tibet, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is.

Spanish
Naranjo, naranja dulce, naranja común.

Citrus × aurantium L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jan 1, 1995 Vasey, N. [39], Madagascar K000383502
25039.000
Decary, R. [5485], Madagascar K000383503
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6390], India K001123770
Citrus × sinensis 7161.000

First published in Sp. Pl.: 783 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K., Rodríguez Delcid, D. & Olmedo Galán, P. (2016). Nova Silva Cuscatlantica. Parte 3: Angiospermae - Familias R a Z y Gymnospermae Englera 29(3): 1-356.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2014). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 7: 1-840. Missouri Botanical Garden Press.
  • Velayos, M., Barberá, P., Cabezas, F.J., de la Estrella, M., Fero, M. & Aedo, C. (2014). Checklist of the vascular plants of Annobón (Equatorial Guinea) Phytotaxa 171: 1-78.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Yamaji, H., Kondo, K., Kuniga, T., Nesumi, H., Yoshida, T., Hashimoto, K. & Takeda, O. (2013). Origin of cultivated Citrus (Rutaceae) documented by the contents of internal transcribed spacer sequences (ITS) in nuclear ribosomal DNA The Journal of Japanese Botany 88: 222-238.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2008). Flora of China 11: 1-622. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
  • Balick, M. J., M. H. Nee & D.E. Atha (2000). Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85: 1-246.
  • Huang, C. in Ling, Y. Et Ge, X. (1997). Rutaceae Flora Reiublicae Popularis Sinicae 43(2): 1-250. Science Press.
  • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kokwaro, J.O. (1982). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Rutaceae: 1-52.
  • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1979). Flore des Mascareignes 64-68: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.

Not accepted by

  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne. [Cited as C. maxima × C. reticulata.]

Literature

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Vangjeli, J. (2017). Flora Albania Atlas 1: 1-933. Koeltz Botanical Books.
  • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
  • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K., Rodríguez Delcid, D. & Olmedo Galán, P. (2016). Nova Silva Cuscatlantica. Parte 3: Angiospermae - Familias R a Z y Gymnospermae Englera 29(3): 1-356.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2014). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 7: 1-840. Missouri Botanical Garden Press.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Choudhary, R.K., Srivastava, R.C., Das, A.K. & Lee, J. (2012). Floristic diversity assessment and vegetation analysis of Upper Siang district of eastern Himalaya in North East India Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy 42: 222-246.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2008). Flora of China 11: 1-622. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • Balick, M. J., M. H. Nee & D.E. Atha (2000). Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85: 1-246.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) in Thulin, M. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Somalia 2: 1-303. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1989 publ. 1990). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 3: 1-659. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
  • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
  • Ovchinnikov, P.N. (ed.) (1981). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 6: 1-725. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
  • Townsend, C.C. & Guest, E. (eds.) (1980). Flora of Iraq 4(1): 1-628. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1979). Flore des Mascareignes 64-68: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Nasir, E. & Ali, S.I. (eds.) (1970-1995). Flora of West Pakistan 1-131.
  • Guillaumin, A. (1948). Compendium de la Flore Phanérogamique des Nouvelles Hébrides Annales de l'Institut Botanico-Geologique de Marseille, VI, 5-6: 1-56.
  • Britton, N. (1918). Flora of Bermuda: 1-585. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 2, (1999) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
ColPlantA database
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/