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This genus is accepted, and its native range is Cosmopolitan.


Aquifoliaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1968

Trees or shrubs
Leaves mostly coriaceous, entire to spinous-toothed; stipules small, persistent or soon falling
Inflorescences solitary or fasciculate, usually composed of 1–few-flowered cymes
Calyx-lobes 4–6(–9), glabrous or ciliolate
Petals 4–6(–9), imbricate, ovate, elliptic or rounded, usually connate at the base
Male flowers with 4–6(–9) stamens
Female flowers with 4–6(–9) staminodes; ovary (2–)4–6(–22)-locular; stigma sessile, discoid, ± lobed Male flowers with 4–6(–9) stamens
Female flowers with 4–6(–9) staminodes; ovary (2–)4–6(–22)-locular; stigma sessile, discoid, ± lobed
Drupes usually with (1–)4–6(–many) 1(–2)-seeded pyrenes; stigma persistent.


Aquifoliaceae, E. J. Mendes. Flora Zambesiaca 2:2. 1966

Evergreen trees or shrubs.
Stipules very small.
Inflorescences axillary.
Petals shortly connate at the base, imbricate.
Stamens as many as the petals.
Style absent.
Ovules 1 in each loculus.
Fruit of 4–5(9) single-seeded pyrenes.

Native to:

Alabama, Albania, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arkansas, Assam, Austria, Azores, Bahamas, Baleares, Bangladesh, Belgium, Belize, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Bulgaria, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Central American Pac, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Corse, Costa Rica, Cuba, Delaware, Denmark, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, France, Free State, French Guiana, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Illinois, India, Iowa, Iran, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kansas, Kentucky, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Korea, Kuril Is., KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Louisiana, Madagascar, Madeira, Maine, Malawi, Malaya, Maluku, Marquesas, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, Netherlands, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Jersey, New York, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, North Carolina, North Caucasus, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Norway, Nova Scotia, Ogasawara-shoto, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Pakistan, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Rwanda, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Sicilia, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Solomon Is., South Carolina, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Uganda, Uruguay, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vermont, Vietnam, Virginia, West Himalaya, West Virginia, Windward Is., Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Extinct in:


Introduced into:

Bermuda, Lebanon-Syria, New Zealand North, New Zealand South

Ilex Tourn. ex L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Nov 4, 2015 Julaihi et al [S 76822], Sarawak K000618518
Harley, R.M. [54064], Brazil K001046982
Harley, R.M. [24285], Brazil K001046989
Harley, R.M. [7397], Brazil K001046990
Harley, R.M. [15559], Brazil K001046999
Harley, R.M. [26483], Brazil K001047000
Harley, R.M. [25087], Brazil K001047003
Harley, R.M. [25087], Brazil K001047004
Harley, R.M. [25089], Brazil K001047005
Hatschbach, G. [41699], Brazil K001047024
Hatschbach, G. [70310], Brazil K001047025
Hatschbach, G. [65577], Brazil K001047026
Hatschbach, G. [47505], Brazil K001046998
Hatschbach, G. [41619], Brazil K001047001
Hatschbach, G. [71875], Brazil K001047010
Hatschbach, G. [71864], Brazil K001047011
Sucre, D. [7207], Brazil K001033748
Mori, S.A. [11278], Brazil K001046995
Mori, S.A. [13162], Brazil K001046996
Santos, T.S. [2525], Brazil K001046994
Giulietti, A.M. [1454], Brazil K001046997
Ganev, W. [3096], Brazil K001046988
Queiroz, L.P. [3818], Brazil K001046992
Pirani, J. [1322], Brazil K001046978
Furlan, A. [2024], Brazil K001046991
Urbano [9354], Brazil K001033747
Brazil 72091.000
Mello-Silva, R. [11323], Brazil K001033743
Mello-Silva, R. [11156], Brazil K001033746
Cordeiro, I. [4127], Brazil K001047006
Cordeiro, I. [7537], Brazil K001033749
Barbosa, E. [619], Brazil K001047017
Barbosa, E. [616], Brazil K001047018
Barbosa, E. [656], Brazil K001047022
Arbo, M.M. [4970], Brazil K001033742
Irwin, H.S. [22670], Brazil K001047028
Irwin, H.S. [28873], Brazil K001033741
Semir, J. [4715], Brazil K001033740
Kawasaki, M.L. [280], Brazil K001046979
Kawasaki, M.L. [274], Brazil K001046980
Saar, E. [5692], Brazil K001046993
Alvarenga, D. [355], Brazil K001046987
Oldenburger, F.H.F. [1655], Brazil K001046986
Ribas, O.S. [3501], Brazil K001047013
Ribas, O.S. [3268], Brazil K001047014
Ribas, O.S. [3370], Brazil K001047015
Ribas, O.S. [3162], Brazil K001047016
Ribas, O.S. [3180], Brazil K001047021
Ribas, O.S. [3502], Brazil K001047012
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 9023], India K001132114
Acevedo-Rodriguez, P. [8260], Brazil K001046976
Ferraz, E.M.N. [582], Brazil K001047023
Cordeiro, J. [1769], Brazil K001047019
Cordeiro, J. [1786], Brazil K001047020
Thomas, W.W. [10038], Brazil K001046983
Thomas, W.W. [10085], Brazil K001046984
Meguro, M. [9014], Brazil K001047002
Meguro, M. [9378], Brazil K001033739
Prance, G.T. [P25052], Brazil K001047030
Strang, H. [1137], Brazil K001033745
Assis, L.C.S. [296], Brazil K001047027
Austin, D.F. [7294], Brazil K001046981
Krieger, L. [15303], Brazil K001033744
Krieger, L. [16372], Brazil K001033750
Funch, L.S. [1055], Brazil K001046985
Matinelli, G. [12346], Brazil K001047029
Did Ferrreira, C.A. [10943], Brazil K001046977

First published in Sp. Pl.: 125 (1753)


Kew Bulletin

  • Chen, S. K., Ma, H. Y., Feng, Y. X., Barriera, G. & Loizeau, P. A. (2008). Aquifoliaceae. In: Z. Y. Wu, P. H. Raven & D. Y. Hong (eds), Flora of China, Vol. 11: 359 - 438. Science Press, Beijing & Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Andrews, S. (2002). Aquifoliaceae. In: E. Soepadmo, L. G. Saw & R. C. K. Chung (eds), Tree Flora of Sabah & Sarawak Vol. 4: 1 - 27. Ampang Press Sdn. Bhd., Kuala Lumpur.
  • IUCN (2001). IUCN red list categories and criteria: Version 3.1. IUCN Species Survival Commission. IUCN, Gland and Cambridge.
  • Galle, F. C. (1997). Hollies: the genus Ilex, pp. 79 - 102. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.
  • Hu, S. Y. (1950). The genus Ilex in China, III. J. Arnold Arbor. 31: 39 - 80.
  • Hu, S. Y. (1949). The genus Ilex in China I - II. J. Arnold Arbor. 30: 233 - 387.
  • Craib, W. G. (1931). Florae Siamensis Enumeratio, Vol. 1: 277 - 278. Siam Society, Bangkok.
  • Turrill, W. B. (1914). LXX. — Decades Kewenses. Bull. Misc. Inform., Kew 10: 377 - 381.

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • —F.T.A. 1: 359.

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 60 (1754).
  • Sp. Pl. 1: 125 (1753)

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Loes. in Nova Acta Leop.-Carol. Deutsch. Akad. Naturf. 78: 8–500 (1901)
  • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 60 (1754)
  • Sp. Pl.: 125 (1753)

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