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  1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Solanum L.
      1. Solanum campylacanthum Hochst. ex A.Rich.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Eritrea to S. Africa.


    Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

    Type: Ethiopia, Adoa, Schimper I 1082 (P, lecto., designated by Lester 1997: 283; BM!, BR!, G, GH, K!, P!, W, isolecto.)
    Erect herb or shrub, 0.2–1.5(–4) m, armed or unarmed; young stems stellatepubescent, trichomes porrect, translucent to orange-translucent, sessile or stalked, stalks up to 1.5(–2) mm, rays 6–12, 0.2–0.4 mm, midpoints ± same length as rays or reduced or elongated to 0.8 mm; prickles straight or curved, 0–5 mm long, 0.2–2 mm wide at base, round or flattened
    Leaf blades drying concolorous to weakly discolorous, yellow-green to red-brown, ovate to elliptic or lanceolate, 3.5–17(–40) × 0.6–10(–19) cm, 1.5–4 times longer than wide, base rounded to cordate, usually equal, margin usually entire, sometimes lobed, the broadly rounded lobes 2–5 on each side, apically rounded (obtuse or acute)up to 1(–3) cm long, extending up to 1/4(–1/2) of the distance to the midvein; apex rounded to acute; moderately to densely stellate-pubescent, trichomes on abaxial surface porrect, sessile or stalked, stalks to 1 mm, rays 6–8, 0.2–0.6 mm, midpoints reduced or to 0.8 mm, trichomes of adaxial surface smaller; primary veins 4–7 pairs; petiole 0.5–4(–11) cm, 1/6–1/4(–1/3) of the leaf length
    Inflorescences simple or occasionally branched once, 2–11 cm long, with (2–)5–10(–40) flowers; peduncle 0–10 mm long; rachis 0.5–8 cm long; peduncle and rachis unarmed; pedicels 0.7–3 cm on long-styled flowers, 0.5–2 cm long, in fruit 1.5–3 cm long, with 0–10 prickles
    Flowers heterostylous, (4–)5(–6)-merous, the basal 1–3(–5) long-styled
    Calyx 7–15 mm on long-styled flowers, 5–10 mm long on shortstyled flowers, lobes deltate to long-deltate, sometimes foliaceous on long-styled flowers, 5–10 mm on long-styled flowers, 1.5–5 mm long on short-styled flowers, acute to obtuse or acuminate, unarmed or with up to 20 prickles
    Corolla mauve to purple, 2.5–4.5 cm in diameter on long-styled flowers, 1.8–4 cm in diameter on shortstyled flowers, lobed for 1/4–1/3 of its length in long-styled flowers, lobed for 1/4–1/2 of its length in short-styled flowers, the lobes broadly deltate, 7–15 × 7–13 mm on longstyled flowers, 5–9 × 4–11 mm on short-styled flowers
    Stamens equal; anthers 6.5–9 mm on long-styled flowers, 4–9 mm on short-styled flowers
    Ovary glabrous or stellate-pubescent in the upper 1/4; style 10–15 mm long on long-styled flowers
    Berries 1–2(–4) per infructescence, striped when young, yellow-orange at maturity, spherical, 1.5–3 cm in diameter; fruiting calyx with 0–30 prickles
    Seeds 2.7–3.2 × 1.9–2.6 mm.
    Fig 25, p 202
    Ubiquitous weed of roadsides, abandoned cultivation, wooded grassland, bushland, dunes, forest edges; 0–2000(–2300) m
    Solanum campylacanthum is a familiar species to anybody visiting north-eastern, eastern, or southern Africa, omnipresent in almost any disturbed environment between sea level and 2000 m elevation. A perennial weed flowering and fruiting abundantly throughout the year, it has mauve flowers, big bright yellow leathery fruits, a long taproot, and leaves that are usually entire. Comparing isolated specimens of S. campylacanthum creates the impression of numerous species and indeed, many species names have been published. Morphological variation is in fact continuous with similar variants occurring randomly in different parts of the range. Solanum campylacanthum does not usually reach above 1.5 m in height, but in the forests of upland Kenya it can grow up to 4 m (these variants have previously been misidentified as “ Solanum richardii”).   Solanum campylacanthum is often referred to as “ Solanum incanum”. Solanum incanum sensu Gonçalves (Flora Zambesiaca 8(4): 1–124. 2005) is a group of closely related weedy species including S. campylacanthum in N, E and S Africa, S. incanum in northern Africa and Arabia, S. lichtensteinii in southern Africa, S. cerasiferum Dunal in western and northern Africa, and the cultivated S. melongena. Almost all East African members of this group are referable to S. campylacanthum, except some populations of S. incanum sensu stricto in northern Kenya and rare occurrences of S. lichtensteinii in southern Tanzania. The concept of S. campylacanthum used in this treatment includes populations from Ethiopia to South Africa, including specimens identified by other authors as S. panduriforme and S. delagoense.
    Range: Congo-Kinshasa, Rwanda, Burundi, Sudan, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, Angola, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Namibia, Botswana, Swaziland, Lesotho, South Africa Flora districts: U1 U2 U3 U4 K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 P Z



    Native to:

    Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Cape Provinces, Congo, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Accepted Infraspecifics


    Common Names

    Bitter apple, Grey bitter apple, Inkberry, Poison apple, Sodom apple

    Other Data

    Solanum campylacanthum Hochst. ex A.Rich. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Aug 9, 2013 Wickens, G.E. [1835], Sudan K000788641
    Aug 9, 2013 Lock, J.M. [81118], Sudan K000788640
    Jan 27, 2011 Schlieben, H.J. [7444], South Africa K000441973
    Jan 27, 2011 Liebenberg, L.C.C. [s122], South Africa K000441974
    Jan 27, 2011 Rautanen, M. [721], Namibia K000441971
    Jan 27, 2011 Winter, B. de [5521], Namibia K000441969
    Jan 27, 2011 Giess, J.W.H. [14004], Namibia K000441970
    Jan 27, 2011 Gerber, H. [13], South Africa K000441972
    Jan 27, 2011 Zwanziger, S. [446], South Africa K000441975
    Dec 9, 2010 Compton, R.H. [29888], Swaziland K000441963
    Dec 9, 2010 Arnold, T.H. [233], South Africa K000441965
    Dec 9, 2010 Winter, B. de [3803], Botswana K000441967
    Dec 9, 2010 Winter, B. de [4704], Namibia K000441968
    Dec 9, 2010 Retief, E. [1355], South Africa K000441964
    Dec 9, 2010 Anonymous [1965], South Africa K000441966
    Dec 9, 2010 Kolberg, H.H. [600], Namibia K000441962
    Dec 8, 2010 Codd, L.E. [2333], South Africa K000441961
    Dec 8, 2010 Prendergast, H.D.V. [HDVP383], Swaziland K000441960
    Dec 8, 2010 Westfall, R.H. [1661], South Africa K000441959
    Dec 3, 2010 Lugard, E.J. [55], Botswana K000441952
    Dec 3, 2010 Rattray, J.M. [s.n.], Angola K000441958
    Dec 3, 2010 Smith, P.A. [1660A], Botswana K000441953
    Dec 3, 2010 Camerik, A.M. [15], Botswana K000441955
    Dec 3, 2010 Harbor, C.C. [653], Botswana K000441951
    Dec 3, 2010 Coleman, M. [13], Botswana K000441954
    Dec 3, 2010 Hoskings, P. [1], Botswana K000441956
    Dec 3, 2010 Kalake, F. [JT125], Botswana K000441957
    Dec 2, 2010 Phipps, J.B. [1376], Zimbabwe K000441944
    Dec 2, 2010 Grosvenor, R.K. [464], Zimbabwe K000441943
    Dec 2, 2010 Rogers, F.A. [5504], Zimbabwe K000441945
    Dec 2, 2010 Teague, A.J. [280], Zimbabwe K000441942
    Dec 2, 2010 Cook, F. [JT190], Botswana K000441950
    Dec 2, 2010 Smith, P.P. [22], Botswana K000441949
    Dec 2, 2010 Mott, P.J. [839], Botswana K000441947
    Dec 2, 2010 Skarpe, C. [S26], Botswana K000441948
    Dec 2, 2010 Mapaura, A. [40], Zimbabwe K000441946
    Nov 26, 2010 Robinson, E.A. [17], Zambia K000441933
    Nov 26, 2010 Fanshawe, D.B. [F10470], Zambia K000441934
    Nov 26, 2010 Fanshawe, D.B. [FZ7201], Zambia K000441941
    Nov 26, 2010 Angus, A. [989], Zambia K000441935
    Nov 26, 2010 Brenan, J.P.M. [8106], Zambia K000441937
    Nov 26, 2010 Holub, E. [s.n.], Zambia K000441936
    Nov 26, 2010 Phiri, P.S.M. [1983], Zambia K000441940
    Nov 26, 2010 Richards, H.M. Mrs [12340], Zambia K000441938
    Nov 26, 2010 Van Rensberg, H.J. [1098KBS], Zambia K000441932
    Nov 26, 2010 Richards, M.A.E. [4321], Zambia K000441939
    Nov 18, 2010 Brummitt, R.K. [10019], Malawi K000441930
    Nov 18, 2010 Brummitt, R.K. [9515], Malawi K000441931
    Nov 18, 2010 Swynnerton, C.F.M. [1793], Mozambique K000441920
    Nov 18, 2010 Torre, A.R. [11989], Mozambique K000441924
    Nov 18, 2010 Macuácua, L. [1329], Mozambique K000441923
    Nov 18, 2010 Groenendijk, E.M.C. [796], Mozambique K000441925
    Nov 18, 2010 Jansen, P.C.M. [s.n.], Mozambique K000441926
    Nov 18, 2010 Zunguze, D. [270], Mozambique K000441928
    Nov 18, 2010 Lawrence, E. [60], Malawi K000441929
    Nov 18, 2010 Anonymous [2050], Mozambique K000441921
    Nov 18, 2010 Gomes_e_Sousa, A.F. [s.n.], Mozambique K000441922
    Nov 18, 2010 Gomes_e_Sousa, A.F. [409], Swaziland K000441927
    Aug 23, 2003 Friis, I. [11156], Ethiopia K000788331
    Jul 4, 1905 Heath, A. [810], Botswana K000788332
    Jul 4, 1905 Heath, A. [71], Botswana K000788333
    Jul 4, 1905 Kolberg, H.H. [547], Namibia K000788336
    Jul 2, 1905 Drummond, R.B. [2790], Tanzania K000441581
    Jul 2, 1905 Stauffer, H.U. [401], Congo K000441482
    Verdcourt, B. [362], Kenya 16337.000
    Greenway, P.J. [5226], Tanzania K001157219
    Greenway, P.J. [11158], Tanzania K001157316
    Greenway, P.J. [14411], Tanzania K001157327
    Greenway, P.J. [13148], Tanzania K001157360
    Greenway, P.J. [10802], Tanzania K001157361
    Greenway, P.J. [10514], Tanzania K001157362
    Greenway, P.J. [1033], Tanzania K001157375
    Greenway, P.J. [1033], Tanzania K001157377
    Greenway, P.J. [11086], Tanzania K001157391
    Greenway, P.J. [6781], Tanzania K001157397
    Gillett, J.B. [14428], Ethiopia K001156087
    Gillett, J.B. [4983], Somalia K001156104
    Gillett, J.B. [14198], Kenya K001157116
    Gillett, J.B. [12854], Kenya K001157152
    Gillett, J.B. [19397], Kenya K001157179
    Dawkins, H.C. [D454], Uganda K001157163
    Dawkins, H.C. [454], Uganda K001157166
    Cruse, A.W. [118], Zambia K001158541
    Troupin, G. [1105] K001155919
    Liben, L. [3908], Congo K001155905
    Liben, L. [1270], Rwanda K001155914
    Bally, P.R.O. [s.n.], Somalia K001156097
    Bally, P.R.O. [7099], Eritrea K001156113
    Bally, P.R.O. [1341], Kenya K001157076
    Bally, P.R.O. [1024], Kenya K001157083
    Bally, P.R.O. [5295], Kenya K001157118
    Bally, P.R.O. [7789], Kenya K001157120
    Bally, P.R.O. [9805], Kenya K001157124
    Bally, P.R.O. [3706], Kenya K001157145
    Bally, P.R.O. [5552], Kenya K001157147
    Bally, P.R.O. [B14725], Kenya K001157150
    Bally, P.R.O. [7849], Kenya K001157201
    Bally, P.R.O. [7783], Kenya K001157223
    Bally, P.R.O. [2670], Kenya K001157231
    Bally, P.R.O. [12492], Kenya K001157345
    Bally, P.R.O. [B2405], Tanzania K001157394
    Eggeling, W.J. [E2550], Uganda K001157106
    Eggeling, W.J. [545], Uganda K001157158
    Eggeling, W.J. [227] K001157164
    Michelmore, A.P.G. [1439], Tanzania K001157336
    Gillman, H. [476], Tanzania K001157356
    Robson, N.K.B. [849], Zambia K001158550
    Chancellor, R.J. [124], Uganda K001157110
    Jackson, G. [60], Malawi K001158571
    Troupin [554], Congo K001155902
    Troupin [554], Congo K001155903
    Troupin [1329], Congo K001155923
    Andrews, F.W. [844], Sudan K001156110
    Fanshawe, D.B. [7201], Zambia K001158513
    Fanshawe, D.B. [7621], Zambia K001158520
    Fanshawe, D.B. [F618], Zambia K001158544
    Chandler, P. [381], Uganda K001157095
    Germain [3983], Congo K001155924
    Germain [3983], Congo K001155925
    Hepper, F.N. [6687], Kenya K001157078
    Hepper, F.N. [4833], Kenya K001157129
    Hepper, F.N. [7205], Kenya K001157142
    Hepper, F.N. [6750], Kenya K001157149
    Hepper, F.N. [5531], Kenya K001157175
    Hepper, F.N. [5531], Kenya K001157176
    Hepper, F.N. [5212], Tanzania K001157247
    Hepper, F.N. [5521], Tanzania K001157266
    Hepper, F.N. [5216], Tanzania K001157296
    Myers, J.G. [9143], Sudan K001156111
    Myers, J.G. [6485], Sudan K001156112
    Gossweiler, J. [445], Angola K001029813
    Napier, E.R. [143], Kenya K001157178
    Napier, E.R. [6298], Kenya K001157191
    Napier, E.R. [5338], Kenya K001157273
    Napier, E.R. [142], Kenya K001157275
    Napier, E.R. [142], Kenya K001157276
    Marais, W. [1103], South Africa K001159060
    Tanner, R.E.S. [871], Tanzania K001157406
    Tanner, R. [1265], Tanzania K001157207
    Tanner, R. [3486], Tanzania K001157258
    Tanner, R. [3784], Tanzania K001157259
    Tanner, R. [3901], Tanzania K001157260
    Tanner, R. [3087], Tanzania K001157261
    Tanner, R. [2242], Tanzania K001157268
    Tanner, R. [2668], Tanzania K001157269
    Tanner, R. [4028], Tanzania K001157352
    Tanner, R. [4486], Tanzania K001157353
    Tanner, R. [5326], Tanzania K001157354
    Tanner, R. [5404], Tanzania K001157358
    Tanner, R. [1942], Tanzania K001157366
    Tanner, R. [1942], Tanzania K001157367
    Tanner, R. [2078], Tanzania K001157371
    Milne-Redhead, E. [10937], Tanzania K001157285
    Milne-Redhead, E. [8105], Tanzania K001157290
    Brass, L.J. [17939], Malawi K001158576
    Angus, A. [2402], Zambia K001158548
    Williams, R.O. [5], Tanzania K001157239
    Rawlins, S. [652], Kenya K001157190
    Hughes, J. [263], Tanzania 16655.000
    Gilbert, M.G. [5605], Kenya K001157087
    Gilbert, M.G. [6406], Kenya K001157088
    Gilbert, M.G. [5606], Kenya K001157148
    Davies, R.M. [505], Tanzania K001157328
    Last, J.T. [s.n.], Tanzania K001157236
    Philcox, D. [8523], Zimbabwe K001158511
    Philcox, D. [8684], Zambia K001158518
    Hughes [263], Tanzania K001157395
    Burtt, B.D. [3397], Tanzania K001157251
    Glover, P.E. [2686], Kenya K001157224
    Glover, P.E. [219], Kenya K001157225
    Glover, P.E. [116], Kenya K001157226
    Glover, P.E. [2584], Kenya K001157230
    Maitland, T.D. [s.n.], Uganda K001157100
    Maitland, T.D. [s.n.], Uganda K001157101
    Maitland, T.D. [1034], Uganda K001157105
    Maitland, T.D. [s.n.], Uganda K001157280
    Maitland, T.D. [s.n.], Uganda K001157282
    Pardy, A.A. [4980], Zimbabwe K001158506
    Bogdan, A. [5578], Kenya K001157085
    Thomas, A.S. [3448], Uganda K001157109
    Huxley, P. [46], Tanzania 17706.000
    Huxley, P. [46], Tanzania K001157314
    Wallace, G.B. [785], Tanzania K001157221
    Wallace, G.B. [35], Tanzania K001157305
    Robertson, S.A. [1248], Eritrea K001156114
    Robertson, S.A. [5396], Kenya K001157182
    Robertson, S.A. [3267], Kenya K001157189
    Codd, L.E. [4646], South Africa K001159054
    Faulkner, H.G. [A 151], Angola K001029811
    Faulkner, H.G. [2767], Tanzania K001157237
    Faulkner, H.G. [3422], Tanzania K001157238
    Faulkner, H.G. [3642], Tanzania K001157264
    Faulkner, H.G. [3325], Tanzania K001157333
    Faulkner, H.G. [157], Angola K001158477
    Faulkner, H.G. [157], Mozambique K001158478
    Gossweiler [4913], Angola K001029808
    Gossweiler [8359], Angola K001029809
    Gossweiler [9400], Angola K001029819
    Hornby [9], Tanzania K001157210
    Popov, G. [1285], Somalia K001156105
    Bax, R.D. [252], Tanzania K001157357
    Mathew, B. [6803], Kenya K001157143
    Dawe, M.T. [235], Uganda K001157159
    Hutchinson, J. [1996], South Africa K001159052
    Hutchinson, J. [2055], South Africa K001159063
    Hutchinson, J. [2661], South Africa K001159067
    Leach, L.C. [10287], Kenya K001157192
    Rawlins, S.P. [227], Kenya K001157195
    Phipps, J.B. [2583], Malawi K001158572
    Gillespie, J.B. [24], Kenya K001157341
    Gillespie, J.B. [25], Kenya K001157342
    Haerdi, F. [94/0], Tanzania K001157288
    Haerdi, F. [940/0], Tanzania K001157291
    Brummitt, R.K. [10549], Malawi K001158562
    Brummitt, R.K. [8996], Malawi K001158569
    Brummitt, R.K. [8695], Malawi K001158580
    Cribb, P. [10121], Tanzania K001157256
    Cribb, P. [10121], Tanzania K001157257
    Germain, R. [6064], Congo K001155917
    Harwood, A. [4], Tanzania K001157329
    Richards [4449], Zambia K001158515
    Richards, M. [20132], Tanzania K001157322
    Richards, M. [23473], Tanzania K001157323
    Richards, M. [25663], Tanzania K001157338
    Richards, M. [23546], Tanzania K001157339
    Schweinfurth, G. [1387] K001156106
    Wilson, J. [2142], Uganda K001157111
    Polhill, E. [37], Kenya K001157082
    Polhill, E. [72], Kenya K001157086
    Fay, J.M. [9103], Central African Republic K001155906
    Friis, I. [11771], Ethiopia K001156082
    Friis, I. [12663], Ethiopia K001156084
    Friis, I. [12671], Ethiopia K001156088
    Friis, I. [8488], Ethiopia K001156091
    Friis, I. [8106], Ethiopia K001156138
    Friis, I. [8261], Ethiopia K001156140
    Friis, I. [9630], Ethiopia K001156144
    Friis, I. [10155], Ethiopia K001156146
    Friis, I. [8505], Ethiopia K001156148
    Scheepers, J.C. [124], South Africa K001159045
    Miller, O.B. [s.n.], Botswana K001158523
    Archbold, M.E. [5], Tanzania K001157262
    Faden, R.B. [67725], Kenya K001157125
    Faden, R.B. [67/505], Kenya K001157134
    Faden, R.B. [68/612], Kenya K001157144
    Faden, R.B. [67/870], Kenya K001157174
    Ash, J.W. [99], Ethiopia K001156116
    Richard, H.M. [140], Zambia K001158512
    Williamson, C. [291], Lesotho K001159075
    Arnold, M.H.M. [35T12.1], South Africa K001159110
    Carter [2623], Tanzania K001157243
    Carter [2646], Tanzania K001157317
    Stewart [b-5], Ethiopia K001156127
    Stewart [301], Kenya K001157202
    Simpson, N.D. [7236], Sudan K001156107
    Verdcourt, B. [362], Kenya K001157127
    Verdcourt, B. [2571], Kenya K001157229
    Verdcourt, B. [2532], Tanzania K001157399
    Carter, S. [496], Kenya K001157346
    Brown [158], South Africa K001159113
    Powell, H.T. [7] K001157278
    Thulin, M. [546], Tanzania K001157250
    Hooper, S.S. [774], Zambia K001158517
    Lewalle, J. [26], Burundi K001155907
    Lewalle, J. [26], Burundi K001155913
    Bjornstad, A. [1262], Tanzania K001157334
    Plowes, D.C.H. [537], Zimbabwe K001158501
    Lovett, J. [1318], Tanzania K001157310
    Thomas [3871], Uganda K001157112
    Semsei, S.R. [4007], Tanzania K001157376
    Methuen [214AB], Zimbabwe K001158499
    Johnson, W.P. [s.n.], Central African Republic K001158471
    Johnson, W.P. [s.n.], Central African Republic K001158472
    Luke, Q. [14918], Kenya K001157343
    Luke, Q. [14212], Kenya K001157344
    Lovett, J.C. [1556], Tanzania K001157303
    Kassner [2230], Zambia K001158542
    Welwitsch [6049], Angola K001029810
    Dehn [619], Zimbabwe K001158509
    Richards, H.M. [21925], Tanzania K001157263
    Richards, H.M. [17714], Tanzania K001157284
    Richards, H.M. [11879], Tanzania K001157299
    Richards, H.M. [13463], Tanzania K001157300
    Richards, H.M. [6882], Tanzania K001157304
    Richards, H.M. [24750], Tanzania K001157321
    Richards, H.M. [26669], Tanzania K001157398
    Richards, H.M. [23067], Tanzania K001157400
    Richards, H.M. [25275], Tanzania K001157401
    Richards, H.M. [26669], Tanzania K001157402
    Richards, H.M. [26601], Tanzania K001157403
    Richards, H.M. [25519], Tanzania K001157404
    Richards, H.M. [25086], Tanzania K001157405
    Richards, H.M. [25518], Tanzania K001157407
    Richards, H.M. [25518], Tanzania K001157408
    Richards, H.M. [4321], Zambia K001158516
    Richards, H.M. [11304], Zambia K001158522
    Richards, H.M. [14641], Botswana K001158524
    Richards, H.M. [14454], Malawi K001158567
    Hendrickx, F.L. [7974] K001155920
    McClounie, J. [51], Malawi K001158559
    Headley, P.M. [192], Ethiopia K001156145
    Gomes e Sousa [1754], Mozambique K001158485
    Batty, M. [9], Tanzania K001157216
    Tweedie, E.M. [2280] K001157079
    Tweedie, E.M. [261] K001157092
    Tweedie, E.M. [410] K001157096
    Tweedie, E.M. [966], Kenya K001157186
    Tweedie, E.M. [1053], Kenya K001157194
    Lynes, H. [134], Tanzania K001157313
    Lynes, H. [V39], Tanzania K001157325
    Bruce, E.M. [845], Tanzania K001157217
    Bruce, E.M. [19], Tanzania K001157246
    Schlechter, F.R.R. [3201], South Africa K001159079
    Jack, C. [185] K001157080
    Sandwith, C.I. [97], Zambia K001158552
    Sandwith, C.I. [s.n.], Zambia K001158553
    Pawek [4589], Malawi K001158558
    Polhill, R.M. [12058], Kenya K001157077
    Polhill, R.M. [251], Kenya K001157130
    Stuhlmann [121], Tanzania K001157240
    Schlieben, H.J. [351], Tanzania K001157326
    Schlieben, H.J. [351], Tanzania K001157332
    Grimshaw, J.M. [93359], Tanzania K001157324
    Pearson, H.H.W. [4090], South Africa K001159037
    Tyson [1218] K001159073
    Hildebrandt, J.M. [987], Tanzania K001157241
    Cruse, A. [20], Zambia K001158545
    Whyte, A. [s.n.], Kenya K001157075
    Whyte, A. [s.n.], Uganda K001157089
    Whyte, A. [s.n.], Uganda K001157094
    Whyte, A. [8], Kenya K001157138
    Whyte, A. [s.n.], Malawi K001158561
    Whyte, A. [s.n.], Malawi K001158566
    Whyte, A. [s.n.], Malawi K001158568
    Gerrard, W.T. [52], South Africa K001159114
    Swynnerton, C.F.M. [1157], Tanzania K001157209
    Swynnerton, C.F.M. [1146], Tanzania K001157211
    Swynnerton, C.F.M. [1142], Tanzania K001157215
    Swynnerton, C.F.M. [2041], Tanzania K001157218
    Swynnerton, C.F.M. [2040], Tanzania K001157254
    Swynnerton, C.F.M. [1144], Tanzania K001157292
    Swynnerton, C.F.M. [1140], Tanzania K001157351
    Swynnerton, C.F.M. [1792], Mozambique K001158480
    Buchanan, J. [533], Malawi K001158556
    Allen, C.E.F. [3], Mozambique K001158482
    Iversen, S.T. [87416], Tanzania K001157373
    Brown, R. [7988], Botswana K001158491
    Rodin, R.J. [4149], Mozambique K001158461
    Rodin, R.J. [3864], South Africa K001159055
    Rodin, R.J. [4720], South Africa K001159059
    Rodin, R.J. [9053], South Africa K001159107
    Ryding, O. [1153], Ethiopia K001156135
    Rehmann, A. [4128], South Africa K001159090
    Perdue, R.E. [9384], Kenya K001157090
    Perdue, R.E. [8037], Kenya K001157136
    Perdue, R.E. [8037], Kenya K001157137
    Perdue, R.E. [9509], Kenya K001157173
    Perdue, R.E. [8164], Kenya K001157203
    Perdue, R.E. [8029], Kenya K001157277
    Mwangangi, O.M. [766], Kenya K001157084
    Mwangangi, O.M. [1249], Kenya K001157157
    Mwangangi, O.M. [258], Kenya K001157274
    Haarer, A.E. [400], Tanzania K001157319
    Haarer, A.E. [399], Tanzania K001157320
    Wilms, F. [1019], South Africa K001159038
    Bolus, H. [9714], South Africa K001159049
    Kilian, N. [2033], Somalia K001156096
    Schweickerdt, H.G.W.J. [547] K001159053
    Dowson, W.J. [475], Kenya K001157140
    Dowson, W.J. [324], Kenya K001157141
    Quarré [138] K001155926
    Rogers, F.A. [6695], Botswana K001158538
    Rogers, F.A. [8202], Zambia K001158546
    Dümmer, R. [202], Uganda K001157348
    Long, D.G. [458], Botswana K001158486
    Long, D.G. [516], Botswana K001158535
    Schinz, H. [s.n.] K001159048
    Chapman [s.n.], South Africa K001159099
    Meller, C.J. [s.n.], Mozambique K001158483
    Lugard, E.J. [90], Kenya K001157091
    Lugard, E.J. [19] K001158488
    Speke [s.n.], Tanzania K001157302
    Pole-Evans, I.B. [H.13553], South Africa K001159071
    Torre, A.R. [7145], Mozambique K001158476
    Anderson, B. [612], Tanzania K001157252
    Anderson, B. [842], Tanzania K001157286
    Anderson, B. [855], Tanzania K001157289
    Anderson, B. [1169], Tanzania K001157340
    T.K. [91] K001157214
    Kuntze, C.E.O. [450], South Africa K001159088
    Zeyher, C.L.P. [1258], South Africa K001159087
    West, O. [3882], Botswana K001158527
    Dummer, R. [202], Uganda K001157167
    Dummer, R. [202], Uganda K001157168
    Lebrun, J. [7508], Congo K001155918
    Liebenberg, L.C.C. [8840] K001159056
    Liebenberg, L.C.C. [32361], South Africa K001159080
    Liebenberg, L.C.C. [8381], South Africa K001159081
    Davis, R.L. [94], Tanzania K001157359
    Scott, L. [s.n.] K001158463
    Rautanen, M. [719] K001159098
    Holub, E. [s.n.], South Africa K001158539
    Holub, E. [s.n.] K001159083
    Pichi-Sermolli, R. [2558] K001156153
    Pichi-Sermolli, R. [2550] K001156154
    Pawek, J. [11410], Malawi K001158563
    Vesey-Fitzgerald, L.D.E.F. [198], Kenya K001157227
    Siame, W. [38], Tanzania K001157298
    Bryant, E.G. [1001], South Africa K001159062
    Witte, G.J. de [3300], Congo K001155921
    Bos, J.J. [1195], South Africa K001159069
    Mungai, G. [3093], Kenya K001157197
    Croat, T.B. [28000], Kenya K001157153
    Frame, G.W. [121], Tanzania K001157388
    Soleman, R. [7248], Tanzania K001157365
    Carmichael [1166], Tanzania K001157222
    Langdale-Brown, I. [2101], Uganda K001157161
    Shantz, H.L. [319], South Africa K001159104
    Shabani [1216], Tanzania K001157253
    Shabani [564], Tanzania K001157364
    Welch, J.R. [417], Tanzania K001157294
    Lye, K.A. [21922], Uganda K001157113
    McDonald, J. [2075], Kenya K001157139
    Vaughan, J.H. [446], Tanzania K001157233
    Vaughan, J.H. [1173], Tanzania K001157235
    Vaughan, J.H. [447], Tanzania K001157272
    Ironside Wood, J.R. [S/73/61], Somalia K001156098
    Ironside Wood, J.R. [S/73/61], Somalia K001156099
    Buchwald, J. [93] K001157270
    Mwachala, G. [1174], Kenya K001157181
    Nation, O. [46], South Africa K001159046
    Son, G. van [29020], Botswana K001158526
    Son, G. van [29020], Botswana K001158537
    Geilinger, W. [1521], Tanzania K001157265
    Geilinger, W. [128], Tanzania K001157363
    Reekmans, M. [6296], Burundi K001155909
    Reekmans, M. [9767], Burundi K001155911
    Reekmans, M. [11150], Burundi K001155912
    Salubeni, A.J. [4033], Malawi K001158577
    Geilinger [4170], Tanzania K001157390
    Mesfin, T. [4155], Ethiopia K001156137
    Mesfin, T. [4156], Ethiopia K001156152
    Haarer, Q.E. [3727], Tanzania K001157267
    Jeffery [K16], Kenya K001157184
    Hanekom, W.J. [1974], South Africa K001159064
    Hanekom, W.J. [1484], South Africa K001159070
    Franks, M. [11970], South Africa K001159089
    Gairdner, A.E. [402], Botswana K001158532
    Gairdner, A.E. [11], Zambia K001158555
    Evans, I.M. [2703], Ethiopia K001156121
    Leippert [6349], Tanzania K001157318
    Sanane, M. [1479], Zambia K001158514
    Gomes e Sousa, A.F. [409], Mozambique K001158462
    Kerfoot, O. [3392], Kenya K001157232
    Kerfoot, O. [2632], Kenya K001157281
    Groenendijk, E.M.C. [2233], Mozambique K001158459
    Groenendijk, E.M.C. [1258], Mozambique K001158460
    Groenendijk, E.M.C. [2048], Mozambique K001158466
    Groenendijk, E.M.C. [2181], Mozambique K001158468
    Phillips, E. [665], Malawi K001158560
    de Saeger [AN514], Congo K001155901
    Paulo, S. [997], Kenya K001157093
    Smith, P.A. [355], Botswana K001158529
    Gilliland, H.B. [K1213], Zimbabwe K001158500
    Ngweno, F. [16], Kenya K001157180
    Loveridge, J.P. [532], Zimbabwe K001158508
    Terry, P.J. [3504], Kenya K001157131
    Maas Geesteranus, R.A. [5269], Kenya K001157198
    Maas Geesteranus, R.A. [4994], Kenya K001157199
    Buechner, H.K. [12], Uganda K001157098
    Buechner, H.K. [12], Uganda K001157099
    Oteke, J. [60], Kenya K001157279
    Jansen, P.C.M. [7406], Mozambique K001158464
    Balaka, J.L. [764], Malawi K001158573
    Balaka, J.L. [776], Malawi K001158578
    Couto, C. [283], Angola K001159066
    Potgieter, J.A. [49], South Africa K001159036
    Rensburg, H.J. van [1112], Zambia K001158519
    Rensburg, H.J. van [1639], Zambia K001158521
    Rensburg, H.J. van [1175], Zambia K001158547
    Vuuren, D.V. [112], South Africa K001159041
    Vuuren, D.V. [365], South Africa K001159061
    Noel, A.R.A. [2418], Zimbabwe K001158496
    Livingstone, D. [64-2], Kenya K001157206
    Blackmore, S. [1471], Malawi K001158570
    Kolberg, H. [547], Namibia K001159074
    McDonald, D.J. [146], South Africa K001159072
    Pegler, A.M. [1604] K001159068
    Senderayi, E. [167], Zambia K001158498
    Terry, J. [24], Congo K001155900
    Terry, J. [125], Botswana K001158534
    Terry, J. [190], Botswana K001158536
    Kwatha, R.B. [91], Malawi K001158564
    Zimba, M.G. [50], Malawi K001158479
    Seydel, R.H.W. [1898], South Africa K001159100
    Seydel, R.H.W. [2615], South Africa K001159103
    Balsinhas, A.A. [599], Mozambique K001158467
    Balsinhas, A.A. [303], Mozambique K001158474
    Williamson, D.T. [s.n.], Botswana K001158525
    Cox, T.J. [308], Botswana K001158489
    Seagrief, S.C. [3159], Malawi K001158581
    Ruffo, C.K. [318], Tanzania K001157295
    Symes, Y.E. [669], Uganda K001157102
    Symes, Y.E. [715], Uganda K001157347
    Meyer, E. [s.n.], South Africa K001159039
    Meyer, E. [s.n.], South Africa K001159040
    Kokwaro, J.O. [s.n.], Kenya K001157188
    Williams, R. [143] K001157212
    Blair Rains, A. [100], Botswana K001158487
    Lawrence, E. [92], Malawi K001158574
    Lawrence, E. [60], Malawi K001158575
    Kaunda, K. [73], Malawi K001158565
    Pirozynski, K.A. [P128], Tanzania K001157307
    Pirozynski, K.A. [P128], Tanzania K001157309
    Prendergast, H.D.V. [HDVP393], Swaziland K001159092
    Prendergast, H.D.V. [393], Swaziland K001159093
    Prendergast, H.D.V. [HDVP383], Swaziland K001159094
    Thompson, J.W. [266], Tanzania K001157393
    D'Arcy, W.G. [7399], Kenya K001157154
    Graham, M.D. [2136], Kenya K001157133
    Hancock, A.D. [48], Kenya K001157126
    Frazier, J. [2262], Kenya K001157193
    Kimani, Z.J. [66], Kenya K001157177
    Someren, D. van [146], Kenya K001157121
    Moomaw, J.C. [829], Kenya K001157183
    Ngoundai [234], Tanzania K001157368
    Ngoundai [132], Tanzania K001157372
    Pielou, D.P. [43], Tanzania K001157306
    Godding, H.C. [17], Somalia K001156118
    Stephen [1365], South Africa K001159108
    Milne-Redhead, E.W.B.H. [3755], Zambia K001158543
    Toms, K.E. [156], Tanzania K001157234
    Roscoe, J. [42], Uganda K001157103
    Drummond, R.B. [2421], Tanzania K001157337
    Drummond, R.B. [3662], Tanzania K001157369
    Drummond, R.B. [3662], Tanzania K001157370
    Drummond, R.B. [2275], Tanzania K001157374
    Schlechter, R. [4320], South Africa K001159042
    Native [1965], South Africa K001159044
    Pole Evans, I.B. [4537], South Africa K001159077
    Purseglove, J.W. [P1235], Uganda K001157097
    Purseglove, J.W. [3304], Uganda K001157104
    Purseglove, J.W. [P1849], Uganda K001157160
    Purseglove, J.W. [s.n.], Uganda K001157165
    Azima, S. [689], Tanzania K001157301
    s.coll [132], Angola K001029812
    s.coll [23], Somalia K001156093
    s.coll [14], Ethiopia K001156136
    s.coll [003/01/2000], Kenya K001157123
    s.coll [320] K001157155
    s.coll [s.n.], Kenya K001157156
    s.coll [9], Tanzania K001157220
    s.coll [2293], Tanzania K001157293
    s.coll [7653], Tanzania K001157355
    s.coll [421], Tanzania K001157389
    s.coll [7162], Mozambique K001158473
    s.coll [s.n.], Mozambique K001158484
    s.coll [s.n.], Botswana K001158490
    s.coll [798] K001158493
    s.coll [s.n.], Zimbabwe K001158504
    s.coll [113], Zimbabwe K001158505
    s.coll [7958], Botswana K001158533
    s.coll [695], Malawi K001158557
    s.coll [197], Malawi K001158579
    s.coll [s.n.] K001159035
    s.coll [6239], South Africa K001159043
    s.coll [s.n.] K001159065
    s.coll [6056], South Africa K001159082
    s.coll [928], Lesotho K001159091
    s.coll [s.n.] K001159095
    s.coll [s.n.] K001159096
    s.coll [709] K001159105
    s.coll [12] K001159106
    s.coll [102], South Africa K001159109
    s.coll [1831] K001159112
    Codd, L.E.W. [4829], South Africa K001159057
    Codd, L.E.W. [2333], South Africa K001159084
    Codd, L.E.W. [4829], South Africa K001159086
    Collett, D.G. [522], South Africa K001159047
    Micha [243], Congo K001155922
    Ramm, C. von [122], Sudan K001156109
    Rudatis, A.G.H. [1348], South Africa K001159076
    Schoenfelder, E.B.W. [995] K001159101
    Schoenfelder, E.B.W. [995] K001159102
    Allen, A. [213], Botswana K001158494
    Parker, I. [GM/543/4], Kenya K001157185
    Clair-Thompson, G.W.S. [1144], Tanzania K001157330
    Schlieben, H.-.J. [3266], Tanzania K001157245
    Richards, M.A.E. [21925], Tanzania K001157271
    Richards, M.A.E. [20992], Tanzania K001157331
    Westfall, R.H. [1521] K001159078
    Coxe, I. [50], Zambia K001158551
    Stewart, R.B. [E33], Ethiopia K001156147
    Herb Troupin, G. [4982], Rwanda K001155916
    Herb Leonard, A. [4350], Congo K001155904
    Herb Baudet, J.C. [289], Burundi K001155908
    Herb Christiaensen, R. [307], Rwanda K001155915
    Wite, G.J. DE [4627], Congo K001155927
    Furui [202B], Ethiopia K001156089
    Lort Philips [K178], Somalia K001156100
    Lort Philips [K178], Somalia K001156101
    Evans Pritchard, E.E. [6], Sudan K001156108
    Hepper, E. [22], Sudan K001156119
    Fukui, K.M. [123], Ethiopia K001156126
    Piffard, F. [21], Ethiopia K001156128
    Nyamongo, D.O. [GBK19], Kenya K001157146
    Mattienge, S.G. [76], Kenya K001157204
    Kibue, K. [95], Kenya K001157170
    Padwa, S. [6], Kenya K001157081
    Dyson-Hudson [218], Uganda K001157107
    Dyson-Hudson, V.R.D. [218], Uganda K001157108
    Wilem, C.T. [1196], Uganda K001157114
    Burzlaff, D.F. [26], Kenya K001157115
    Nattrass [684], Kenya K001157117
    Wel [4367], Tanzania K001157119
    Wel [4367], Tanzania K001157122
    Tropsuell, C.G. [2138], Kenya K001157128
    Mattrass [684], Kenya K001157132
    Ndegwa, J. [112], Kenya K001157135
    Nesbit-Evans, E.M. [152], Kenya K001157151
    Kertland, M.P.M. [254], Uganda K001157162
    Requien, V.N. [4], Uganda K001157169
    Saneren, R. [176], Kenya K001157171
    Ndungi, E. [87], Kenya K001157172
    Verdecourt [1085], Kenya K001157187
    Luke, G. [580], Kenya K001157196
    Temple, J.G. [H1], Kenya K001157200
    Humie [58], Kenya K001157205
    Brooks, A.C. [56], Tanzania K001157208
    Megregot, C.G. [70] K001157213
    Someren. van [176], Kenya K001157228
    Claire Thompson, G.W.S. [410], Tanzania K001157242
    Savilo Bog, K.J. [51], Tanzania K001157248
    Leipppert [6263], Tanzania K001157249
    Mshana [196], Tanzania K001157255
    Allnut, R.B. [47], Tanzania K001157287
    Welch [326], Tanzania K001157297
    Anton [21], Tanzania K001157308
    Shabani, R. [40], Tanzania K001157311
    Heckel, E. [s.n.] K001157312
    Paula, S. [403], Tanzania K001157315
    Hobbs, G.A. [17], Tanzania K001157335
    Janner [1007], Tanzania K001157349
    William, V. [10], Tanzania K001157350
    Umesao, T. [30], Tanzania K001157387
    Haaren, Q.E. [686], Tanzania K001157392
    Ngaya, A. [1], Tanzania K001157396
    Agular Macêdo, J.M. de [4886], Mozambique K001158465
    Johnson, W.J.P. [66], Malawi K001158469
    Seddon, F.M. [15], Mozambique K001158470
    Johnson, A.W.P. [437], Mozambique K001158475
    Mett, P.J. [11b], Botswana K001158492
    Glanville, G. [569], Botswana K001158495
    Goodier, J.H. [79], Zimbabwe K001158497
    Department of Agriculture [3210], Zimbabwe K001158507
    Muller, B. [5033], Botswana K001158528
    RJC/LC [214], Zimbabwe K001158530
    RJC/LC [214], Zimbabwe K001158531
    Winterbottom, M.G. [87], Zambia K001158549
    Nyirenda, S.P. [2], Malawi K001158582
    Clean, A.P.D. [29526], South Africa K001159050
    Mason, N.E. [70], South Africa K001159051
    Oates, L.G. [14] K001159058
    Ellery, W. [418] K001159085
    Goossens. A.P. [1051] K001159097
    Todley, E.S. [1334], South Africa K001159111


    First published in Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2: 102 (1850)

    Accepted by

    • PBI Solanum Project (2014-continuously updated). Solanaceae Source: a global taxonomic resource for the nightshade family


    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Fl. Eth. 5: 140, fig. 158.15.6–8 (2006
    • Fl. Somalia 3: 217 (2006).
    • F.P.U.: 129 (1962)
    • T.T.C.L.: 589 (1949)
    • F.T.A. 4, 2: 239 (1906)
    • Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2: 102 (1850)


    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at and
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at and
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa
    © Plants and People Africa