1. Family: Arecaceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Genus: Calamus L.
      1. Calamus flagellum Griff. ex Walp.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Assam to S. China and Indo-China.

    [PW]
    Biology
    A component of mixed forests on lower and middle hills of the Eastern Himalaya.
    Distribution
    INDIA (Sikkim, Assam, West Bengal, Meghalaya), BANGLA DESH, BHUTAN.
    General Description
    A strong climber; stem cluster forming, with leafsheath to 4.5 cm in diameter. Leaves ecirrate; leafsheath with 6 - 7 m long heavily armed flagellum; ocrea marcescent; petiole terete, about 1 cm in diameter, armed with whorls of 1 - 3 cm long subulate spines; leaflets equidistant, many, green on both sides, broadly ens iform, prominently 1-nerved on upper side; middle leaflets longer, to 60 cm long; uppermost leaflets connate up to the middle; midnerve and marginal nerves bristly; rachis heavily armed on lower side with strong claws at intervals. Male and female inflorescences flagelliform, to 5 m or more long, simply-decompound; axial part of the inflorescence armed with claws; partial inflorescences about 1 m long with 3-4 rachillae on each side; primary bract tubular, closely sheathing, lacerate and fibrous at upper part; secondary bracts unarmed, tubular, narrowly funnel shaped, obliquely truncate with triangular appendage on one side; rachillae 10-25 cm long slightly compressed; each bearing 10-30 distichous to remote flowers; involucre cupular; male flowers 8 - 10 mm x 3 mm, curved outside; female rachillae remote, 20-25 cm long; involucrophorum unilaterally cupular, truncate, projected from the basal bract; involucre cupular, truncate, entirely sunken in involucrophorum; female flowers 7 mm long; calyx ovate, 3-dentate; petals lanceolate. Fruit about 3 cm long, broadly ovoid; fruit scales deeply channelled at middle; seed terete in cross section; embryo basal.
    Vernacular
    Putli bet, Rabi bet, Reem
    [PW]
    Distribution
    China (South Yunnan) and Vietnam (Central Annam). The variety is only reported from Indochina.
    Biology
    At 1350 m in Vietnam
    Conservation
    Unknown.
    [PW]
    Use
    Unknown. The strength property of the cane is yet to be determined.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Assam, Bangladesh, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam

    Calamus flagellum Griff. ex Walp. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Sep 1, 2004 Ban, N.K. [PA137], Vietnam K000208974
    Jan 1, 1999 Oulathong [200], Laos K000114544
    Feb 1, 1992 Thompson [s.n.E8], India K000521846
    Feb 1, 1992 Thompson [s.n.E12], India K000521849
    Feb 1, 1992 Hooker [s.n.E2], India K000521842
    Feb 1, 1992 Hooker [s.n.E9], India K000521847
    Griffith [s.n.], India K000521853 isotype
    Griffith [6386], India K000521851
    Hooker [542], India K000522417
    Hooker [542], India K000522418
    Hooker [542], India K000522419
    Henderson, A. [3146], Myanmar K000208538
    Henderson, A. [3169], Myanmar K000208549
    Henderson, A. [3141], Myanmar K000208559
    Henderson, A. [3129], Myanmar K000208562
    Henderson, A. [3251], Vietnam K000526537
    Henderson, A. [3262], Vietnam K000526547
    Oulathong [234], Laos K000114556
    Hooker and Thompson [s.n.E1], India K000521841
    Hooker and Thompson [s.n.E4], India K000521840
    Hooker and Thompson [s.n.E10], India K000521850
    Hooker and Thompson [s.n.E11], India K000521852
    Hooker and Thompson [s.n.E13], India K000521848
    Keenan [s.n.E5], India K000521843
    Keenan [s.n.E6], India K000521845
    Keenan [s.n.E7], India K000521844

    First published in Ann. Bot. Syst. 3: 484 (1852)

    Accepted by

    • Peters, C.M. & Henderson, A. (2014). Systematics, ecology and management of Rattans in Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam: 1-222. Agricultural Printing House.
    • Barfod, A.S. & Dransfield, J. (2013). Flora of Thailand 11(3): 323-498. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
    • Henderson, A. (2009). Palms of Southern Asia: 1-197. Princeton university press, Princeton and Oxford.
    • Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    • S.K. Basu, Rattans (canes) in India. A Monographic Revision. 1992
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2010). Flora of China 23: 1-515. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Henderson, A. (2009). Palms of Southern Asia: 1-197. Princeton university press, Princeton and Oxford.

    Sources

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
    Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0