1. Family: Arecaceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Genus: Calamus L.
      1. Calamus exilis Griff.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Peninsula Thailand to W. Malesia.

    [PW]
    Vernacular
    rotan paku
    Distribution
    Perak, Penang, Trengganu, Pahang, Selangor, Malacca, Johore. Sumatra.
    General Description
    Slender solitary or clustering rattan climbing to 6 m, rarely to 15 m tall. Stem without sheaths A-6 mm in diameter with internodes to 15 cm long; stem with sheaths to 15 mm diamater, exceptionally to 25 mm. Sheaths very variable in armature, dull grey brown in colour, always with a dense covering of minute scabrid spines, giving rough feel to leaf sheath; large spines often completely absent; sometimes, especially in the mountains, sheaths rather densely covered with dark grey-brown shiny spines, hairy margined when young to 12 mm long. Knee conspicuous. Flagellum to 1.75 m long. Leaf ecirrate very variable, to 30 cm long in extreme slender forms, to 50 cm long in more robust forms, with well-defined petiole to 15 cm long; rachis rather densely rusty hairy along its length on the upper surface; leaflets about 20-25 on each side, thin and delicate, very regularly arranged, to 15 cm long by 8 mm wide usually rather densely covered with fine pale bristles or ciliate hairs on both sides, rarely these bristles almost absent. Inflorescences superficially similar, to 70 cm, sometimes to 20 cm only, with a terminal flagellum, and 2-6 partial inflorescences; partial inflorescences reflexed arcuate in all parts when mature. Fruit on a large disk, this conspicuously stalked (pedicelliform involucre) mature fruit ovate to oblong, with 15-18 vertical rows of straw-coloured scales. Seed ovate to oblong, flattened on one side rather deeply sinuose grooved like a brain, covered with a thin green intensely bitter and foetid sarcotesta. Seedling leaf pinnate, with rusty coloured hairs along rachis and about 10 leaflets on each side of the rachis, the uppermost leaflets much larger and broader than the lowermost.
    [PW]
    General Description
    Solitary (?always) slender rattan climbing to 10 m tall; stem without sheaths 7-8 mm diam, with sheaths to 14 mm diam., internodes c. 10 cm long. Sheaths dull green, very densely covered in minute, rigid brown hairs with swollen bases, the hairs eventually deciduous leaving a rough surface, or with slender greenish almost hair-like spinules, a few short triangular spines to 2 mm long sometimes present scattered among the hairs; knee conspicuous; ocrea inconspicuous. Flagellum to 1.25 m. Leaf ecirrate, to 55 cm long including petiole to c. 15 cm, rough near the base; leaflets 15-20 on each side of the rachis, regularly arranged, ± linear, the longest to 25 × 2 cm, both surfaces bearing minute spinules or, more rarely, pale green hair-like spinules; transverse veinlets conspicuous. Inflorescence 60-125 cm long, curved, with 3-6 much curved partial inflorescences; male rachillae strongly curved, to 25 mm long, bearing distant large flowers; female rachillae much curved, to 45 mm, bearing distant large conspicuously stalked flowers. Mature fruit ellipsoid, 20 × 8 × 10 mm, covered in yellowish-brown scales. Other details not known. (Fig. 42).
    Distribution
    Locally common in Brunei, tending to occur in forest on poor soils. Elsewhere in Sarawak. Endemic.
    [PW]
    Use
    Rotan paku produces a good quality slender cane useful for binding purposes; mostly used locally, but it is also sold. The seedlings would make fine ornamentals.
    [PW]
    Use
    The cane appears to be of good quality for binding purposes.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Borneo, Malaya, Sumatera, Thailand

    Calamus exilis Griff. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Griffith [s.n.], Peninsular Malaysia K000207750 isotype
    Aug 2, 2001 Yii, P.C. [S.67564], Malaysia Calamus hispidulus K000114273
    Mar 9, 2000 Osman [BRUN16468], Brunei Calamus hispidulus K000112567
    Mar 9, 2000 Julaihi [79183], Malaysia Calamus hispidulus K000112583
    Jun 25, 1999 Jinuan, J. [4], Malaysia Calamus hispidulus K000113392
    Apr 22, 1994 Wiriadinata [3469], Indonesia Calamus hispidulus K000113382
    Mar 21, 1991 Wong, K.M. [507], Brunei Calamus hispidulus K000113390
    Mar 21, 1991 Wong, K.M. [1737], Brunei Calamus hispidulus K000113380
    Sep 7, 1990 Dransfield, J. [JD5609], Malaysia Calamus hispidulus K000113385
    Sep 7, 1990 Wong, K.M. [341], Brunei Calamus hispidulus K000113388
    Coode, M. [7028], Brunei Calamus hispidulus K000113386
    Coode, M. [7059], Brunei Calamus hispidulus K000113389
    Moore, H.E. [9098], Malaysia Calamus hispidulus K000113383
    Dransfield, J. [JD5269], Malaysia Calamus hispidulus K000113384
    Dransfield, J. [7124], Brunei Calamus hispidulus K000113387
    Dransfield, J. [6599], Brunei Calamus hispidulus K000113391
    Osman [BRUN16903], Brunei Calamus hispidulus K000112568
    Van Valkenburg [1133], Indonesia Calamus hispidulus K000113381
    Ariffin [BRUN15744], Brunei Calamus hispidulus K000112565
    Ridley, H.N. [12199], Peninsular Malaysia Calamus pulaiensis K000208111 holotype
    Ridley, H.N. [12199], Peninsular Malaysia Calamus pulaiensis K000208112 holotype

    First published in Palms Brit. E. Ind.: 51 (1850)

    Accepted by

    • Barfod, A.S. & Dransfield, J. (2013). Flora of Thailand 11(3): 323-498. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
    • Henderson, A. (2009). Palms of Southern Asia: 1-197. Princeton university press, Princeton and Oxford.
    • Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    • J. Dransfield, A Manual of the rattans of the Malay Peninsula. Malayan Forest Recirds 29.. 1979

    Sources

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
    Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0