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This species is accepted, and its native range is Ecuador.


Santamaría-Aguilar, D. & Monro, A.K. (2019). Compendium of Freziera (Pentaphylacaceae) of South America including eleven new species and the typification of 22 names. Kew Bulletin 74: 14.

Using the three documented gatherings of Freziera ecuadoriensis and IUCN (2001) criteria applied using GeoCAT (Bachman et al. 2011) we calculate the EOO to be 2698 km2 (EN, IUCN criterion B). A survey of the EOO using the Global Forest Watch (2014) interactive map suggests that there has been c. 2% deforestation between 2001 and 2015 (subcriteria b). However, a review of the three localities in GoogleEarth suggests that deforestation rates have been much higher. For Øllgaard & Balslev 9345 it is possible to estimate the collection locality as within a few hundred metres of 2°43'8.94"S, 78°37'11.79"W (decimal) using the altitude and directions to the collection site provided on the herbarium label. This locality is within a large valley where >90% of the forest at the elevation range where the gathering was made has been converted to agricultural land, presumably prior to 2001. Luteyn & Romoleroux 14544 was collected at a locality now within a km of a largely deforested landscape and where below 2400 m all forest has been converted to agriculture (Google Earth). Jørgensen et al. 1052 was collected at a locality which now falls within a largely agricultural landscape where <50% of the original forest remains (Google Earth). In addition, the collectors observed that the forest at the locality in 1994 when the gathering was made, was under heavy pressure from charcoal production. We therefore suggest that low estimates for active deforestation in the EOO by Global Forest Watch are due to most of the EOO having already been deforested by 2001, the date from which data has been compiled. We conclude that the EOO has been subject to profound forest loss and fragmentation (subcriteria a) since the time that the gatherings we cite here were made (1976 – 1994) and therefore assess F. ecuadoriensis as Endangered (EN) under Criteria B and subcriteria a & b.
Freziera ecuadoriensis is endemic to Ecuador from where it is known from the provinces of Azuay, Loja and Zamora-Chinchipe provinces, at elevations of 2200 to 3360 m.
Freziera ecuadoriensis is documented from montane primary and secondary forest, roadsides and open areas associated with Chusquea Kunth (Poaceae).
Morphology Branches
Mature branches terete to weakly angulate, solid, bark brown, greyish or blackish; leaf-bearing branches terete to weakly angulate, densely hirsute, the hairs 0.7 – 2 mm, golden or yellow, papillose or not, with or without lenticels, where present lenticels whitish, elliptical to orbicular
Morphology General Buds
Terminal bud conduplicate-involute 1 – 3.2 cm, densely hirsute, the hairs 0.3 – 1.6 mm, golden, yellow or red-brown
Morphology General Habit
Shrub or tree to 10 m; bark and cambium unknown
Morphology Leaves
Leaves petiolate, petiole (0.1 –) 0.3 – 0.6 cm, adaxially grooved, abaxially rounded, hirsute or glabrescent, where pubescent the hairs golden, yellow or red-brown, not winged, margins entire; colleters absent; lamina 3.8 – 7.7 × 1.3 – 3.8 cm, narrowly elliptic or ovate, usually drying brown; adaxial surface glabrous (pubescent in young leaves), not pustulate; abaxial surface hirsute or woolly, the hairs 0.3 – 2.7 mm, golden or yellow, papillose or not; midrib adaxial surface flattened or weakly grooved, glabrescent or densely pubescent, abaxial surface rounded, prominent, pustulate or not, densely pubescent; lateral veins 10 – 24 pairs (including minor ones), flattened and impressed on adaxial surface, raised on abaxial surface; higher order venation distinct on both surfaces, more conspicuous on the abaxial surface; base cuneate or subobtuse, frequently revolute, weakly asymmetrical; margin serrulate, with 19 – 46 teeth per side, each tooth with a black or red-brown, conical, caducous seta, setae frequently ringed by hairs; apex acuminate or acute, bearing a single curved black or brown caducous seta
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers unisexual?: 2.5 – 3.0 mm diam. in bud; sepals 5, imbricate; outer sepals 3 – 5.5 × 2.4 – 4.5 mm, broadly ovate, abaxial surface tomentose, adaxial surface glabrous, margin entire and ciliate, apex obtuse; inner sepals 3 – 3.2 (4 –) × 2.2 – 2.8 mm, ovate to broadly ovate, abaxial surface glabrous or glabrescent, adaxial surface glabrous, margin entire and ciliate, apex obtuse; petals 5, 3 – 5 × 1.8 – 2.5 mm, white or pink-tinged, distinct, glabrous, ovate, margin entire, apex acute or obtuse Pistillate flowers: staminodes 16 – 22, 0.5 – 1.1 mm, free, flattened, linear, apex acute; gynoecium 3-locular, 1.7 – 3 × 1.2 – 1.5 mm, subglobose, glabrous; style simple; stigmatic lobes 3
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits 6 – 8 × 4.5 – 6 mm, globose, glabrous, green or green turning dark brown; fruit walls 0.3 – 0.4 mm thick; seeds (16 –) 43 – 57 per fruit, red-brown to brown, shiny, 1 – 1.6 mm long, sub-reniform, foveolate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences axillary, fasciculate, bearing 1, 2 (3) flowers per axil; pedicel c. 4 mm, terete, erect, hirtellous; bracts at or above pedicel base persistent or caducous, 3.2 – 5.4 × 1 – 3.8 mm (7 × 6 mm), narrowly triangulate or broadly ovate, keeled or not keeled, abaxial surface woolly, hirtellous or nearly glabrous, adaxial surface glabrous, occasionally sparsely pubescent, margin with setae, apex acute to acuminate with a caducous black or red-brown curved seta at apex; bracteoles at pedicel apex persistent, opposite, unequal, 2, 3.2 – 5.5 × 1.8 – 3.5 mm, weakly triangulate, keeled or not keeled, abaxial surface appressed pubescent to hirtellous, adaxial surface glabrous, margin entire, occasionally with a few setae, apex rounded or acute, occasionally bearing a seta
This species is named after Ecuador where it is endemic. The collection B. Øllgaard & H. Balslev 9345 (MO, NY) from Azuay Province differs from the type and other collections from Zamora-Chinchipe Province in having relatively larger leaves with broader leaf laminae. Further research may conclude that this collection belongs to a distinct taxon. Freziera ecuadoriensis can be distinguished from other Freziera species by the densely pubescent young branches, relatively small leaves with relatively short petioles lacking associated colleters, conspicuous venation on both surfaces, dense pubescence on the abaxial surface, revolute weakly asymmetrical leaf base and serrulate margin, few-flowered inflorescences, pedicellate flowers, narrow floral buds (2.5 – 3 mm wide) and thin-walled fruits. Freziera ecuadoriensis is most similar to F. suberosa Tul. from which it can be distinguished by the pubescent abaxial surface of the outer sepals, smaller inner sepals and smaller fruits.
Freziera ecuadoriensis has been collected in flower from July to December and in fruit from April to December.
Ecuador, Zamora-Chinchipe Province, Loja-Zamora old road, 03°58'S 079°06'W, 2200 – 2745 m, 23 April 1992 (fr.), J. L. Luteyn & K. Romoleroux 14544 (holotype K [K001289261]; isotypes MO [MO1577147], NY [NY03091296]).

Native to:


Freziera ecuadoriensis D.Santam. & A.K.Monro appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Kew Bull. 74(1)-14: 15 (2019)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R., Nic Lughadha, E., Black, N., Turner, R. & Paton, A. (2021). The World Checklist of Vascular Plants, a continuously updated resource for exploring global plant diversity. Scientific Data 8: 215.


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© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.

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Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at and
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.