1. Family: Icacinaceae Miers
    1. Genus: Rhaphiostylis Planch. ex Benth.
      1. Rhaphiostylis beninensis (Hook.f. ex Planch.) Planch. ex Benth.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is W. Tropical Africa to W. Ethiopia and Zimbabwe.

    [FWTA]

    Icacinaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

    Habit
    A glabrous scandent shrub, rarely arborescent
    Flowers
    Flowers white, fragrant
    Fruits
    Ripe fruits red, shining, fleshy
    Note
    The whole plant goes black when dried
    Ecology
    In forest vegetation.
    [FTEA]

    Icacinaceae, G. Ll. Lucas. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1968

    Habit
    Scandent shrub or liane up to 15 m. long, often 5–6 cm. in diameter; branches glabrous, reddish-brown when young, becoming grey with age.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blade elliptic to lanceolate, 5–15 cm. long, 2–8 cm. wide, abruptly or gradually acuminate, cuneate to ± rounded at the base, glabrous, coriaceous, dark green above, paler beneath, with the midrib slightly impressed above, prominent beneath, and with 4–5(–6) pairs of secondary veins prominent on both surfaces; petiole 3–5 mm. long, canaliculate.
    Flowers
    Flowers few to many in ± axillary fascicles, pedicellate; bracts minute.
    Calyx
    Calyx 0.4–0.7 mm. long; lobes deltoid, ciliate.
    Corolla
    Petals free, white, drying black, linear, up to 7 mm. long, 1.5 mm. wide.
    Pistil
    Ovary ovoid, up to 1 mm. long, glabrous or with a few hairs at the apex; style eccentric, filiform, up to 4 mm. long, glabrous or sparsely pubescent, persistent; stigma capitate.
    Fruits
    Fruit broadly ovoid, obliquely dorsi-ventrally compressed, up to 1.3 cm. long and 2 cm. wide and 1 cm. thick, red when mature, glossy black and characteristically reticulately wrinkled on drying.
    Figures
    Fig. 3, p. 7.
    Habitat
    Lowland rain-forest, riverine forest and evergreen thickets; 900–1350 m.
    Distribution
    T1 T3 T4 T6 U2 U4 westwards to Senegal and southwards to Mozambique, Rhodesia and Angola
    [FZ]

    Icacinaceae, E. J. Mendes. Flora Zambesiaca 2:1. 1963

    Habit
    A glabrous straggling evergreen shrub or woody liane; bark smooth, dark grey; young branches dark purple.
    Leaves
    Leaf-lamina 7–15 × 2·5–5·5 cm., glossy dark green, pale below, drying blackish, narrowly lanceolate to elliptic, apex abruptly or gradually acuminate with obtuse acumen up to 2 cm. long, cuneate or slightly rounded at the base; midrib impressed above, prominent beneath; petiole c. 0·4 cm. long, wrinkled.
    Flowers
    Flowers c. 6 mm. long in bud, sweet-scented, in 4 — many-flowered, supra-axillary fascicles; pedicels glabrous, ± equalling the flowers.
    Corolla
    Petals white.
    Fruits
    Fruit markedly reticulate-wrinkled, oblique on the stipe, broad-ovoid, red at maturity, drying glossy black.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Burkina, Cabinda, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Congo, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mozambique, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Rhaphiostylis beninensis (Hook.f. ex Planch.) Planch. ex Benth. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Oct 1, 2008 Cheek, M. [13466], Cameroon K000580183
    Jan 1, 2004 Cheek, M. [10492], Cameroon K000746328
    Aug 1, 2001 Lane, P. [517], Cameroon K000108515
    Aug 1, 2001 Etuge, M. [1582], Cameroon K000108513
    Dec 1, 1996 Tchouto (Mbatchou), P. [852], Cameroon K000436568
    Dec 1, 1963 Stuhlmann [1221] K000226076
    Dec 1, 1963 Scheffler [146], Tanzania K000226074
    Dec 1, 1963 Scheffler [146], Tanzania K000226075
    Milne-Redhead, E. [3188], Zambia 21913.000
    Meikle, R.D. [969], Nigeria 21912.000
    Onochie, C.A. [FHI 40417], Nigeria 27796.000
    unknown [46], Liberia K000226084
    unknown [723] K000226085
    Zenker [2504], Cameroon Rhaphiostylis zenkeri K000226077

    First published in W.J.Hooker, Niger Fl.: 259 (1849)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Harris, D.J. (2002). Vasc. Pl. Dzanga-Sangha: 1-274. National Botanic Garden (Belgium), Meise.
    • Aké Assi, L. (2001). Flore de la Côte-d'Ivoire: catalogue systématique, biogéographie et écologie. I Boissiera 57: 1-396.
    • Exell, A.W., Fernandes, A. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1963). Flora Zambesiaca 2(1): 1-351. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
    • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • in Hook. Fl. Nigrit. 259, t. 28 (1849).
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Exell, A.W., Fernandes, A. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1963). Flora Zambesiaca 2(1): 1-351. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Mendes in Flora Zambesiaca 2: 347, t. 73 (1963).
    • F. White, Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia p. 221 (1962).
    • Boutique in Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, 9: 275 (1960).
    • Keay, Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 638 (1958).
    • Sleumer in A. Engler & K. Prantl, Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, ed. 2, 20B: 368 (1942).
    • Engl. in A. Engler & O. Drude, Die Vegetation Der Erde, IX, Pflanzenwelt Afrikas 3(2): 256 (1921), as “Raphiostyles ”.
    • Benth. in Hook., Niger Fl.: 259, t. 28 (1849).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0