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This species is accepted, and its native range is Temp. Eurasia to Africa.
Epilobium hirsutum

[FZ]

Onagraceae, P. H. Raven. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

Morphology General Habit
Robust herb, 0·2–2·5 m. tall, the subligneous stems sometimes persistent; rhizome stout, producing thick white underground runners with very scattered cataphylls; plants more or less white-pubescent, densely covered, especially in the inflorescence, with long spreading trichomes.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves 2–12 × 0·5–4 cm., mostly opposite, alternate above, oblong-lanceolate, densely hairy, acute, sessile, clasping at the base, coarsely toothed; rosette leaves longer and less hairy than later leaves; young leaves to 20 cm. long, more glabrous; petiole up to 5 cm.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence with an admixture of glandular trichomes, erect in bud; flowers erect in bud.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Floral tube 2·5–3 mm. across, c. 1–1·5 mm. deep.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals 6–10× 2–2·5 mm., apiculate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 6–16 × 6–15 mm., deeply notched, bright purplish-rose.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Anthers 1·5–2 mm. long; the filaments of the longer 3·5–6 mm. long, of the shorter 2–3 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Styles 6–10 mm. long; stigma deeply 4-lobed, held above the anthers at anthesis, lobes 1·5–2·5 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsules 3–8 mm. long, densely villous, on pedicels 2–12 mm. long; seeds 0·9–1·15 mm. long, dark brown or even coppery, oblong-obovoid, acute at the base, coarsely papillose, the coma 5–7 mm., dull white.
Cytology
Chromosome number n=18.

[FIQ]

Ghazanfar, S. A. & Edmondson, J. R (Eds). (2014) Flora of Iraq, Volume 5 Part 2: Lythraceae to Campanulaceae.

Vegetative Multiplication Rhizomes
Rhizome thick, producing white fleshy soboles
Morphology Stem
Stems to 2.1 m tall, plant robust, branching, entirely covered with ± dense villous pubescence
Morphology Leaves
Leaves oblong to lanceolate, 2–12 × 0.5–3.5 cm, serrate, sessile, clasping
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence with an admixture of glandular hairs, suberect before anthesis
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers large, up to 2 cm; petals bright purplish-rose
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Stigma
Stigma deeply 4-lobed, elevated above the anthers at anthesis
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule 4–10 cm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds brown, obovoid, papillate, 1–1.5 mm.
Ecology
Usually by streams or springs and in other damp places; sometimes also in hedgerows, old fields etc.; up to alt. 1700 m (usually 700–1700 m)
Phenology
Flowering and fruiting: Jul.-Oct.
Distribution
Common throughout forest zone of Iraq, rare on the plains. Throughout Europe, N E and S Africa, Cyprus, Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan and throughout Central Asia and Himalaya to China and Japan; introduced in east North America.
Note
Epilobium hirsutum is a tall, large-flowered species which is variable in pubescence. Although white-pubescent individuals are common in many parts of its range, particularly in the Near East, this variation does not appear to be geographically correlated and does not, in my opinion, demand taxonomic recognition. Hairy Willow-Herb, Codlins and Cream (Eng.), Hairy Willow-weed (Am.).

[FTEA]

Onagraceae, J. P. M. Brenan. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1953

Morphology General Habit
Rhizomatous, usually robust herb up to 2.1 m. high, indumentum ranging from pubescent and very sparsely villous to densely villous or tomentose; capitate glandular hairs present.
Morphology Stem
Stems without imbricate scale-leaves at base.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves sessile, variable, oblong or lanceolate to elliptic or sometimes ovate-elliptic or obovate-oblong, about 3–10 cm. long and 0.5–2.5 (-3.7) cm. wide, acute, sharply serrulate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers bright pink to red-purple, rarely and only casually white.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals 7–10 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals broadly obovate, 9.5–19 mm. long, 7–18 mm. wide.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style 7–8 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Stigma
Stigma divided nearly or quite to base into four arcuate-recurved narrowly clavate obtuse arms 1.75–3 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsules mostly 4–8.5 cm. long; pedicels 0.5–1.6 (–2) cm. long.
Distribution
Similar to that of var. villosissimum. E. hirsutum, in a wide sense, recorded as naturalized in Canada and the United States

[FIQ]
Use
A striking plant, by far the most common species in Iraq; suitable for cultivation in a “wild garden” near running water.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Altay, Angola, Austria, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Burundi, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Central African Repu, Central European Rus, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, France, Free State, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kirgizstan, Korea, Kriti, Krym, KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Libya, Manchuria, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northwest European R, Pakistan, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Qinghai, Romania, Rwanda, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, South European Russi, Spain, Sudan, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Xinjiang, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

British Columbia, Colorado, Connecticut, Finland, Illinois, Indiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Norway, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Ontario, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Prince Edward I., Québec, Rhode I., Vermont, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin

Epilobium hirsutum L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jan 1, 1980 Wallich, N. [6325], Indian Subcontinent K000913976 holotype
Jan 1, 1980 Giles [533], Pakistan K000913977
K000310893
K000310894
Schimper, G.H.W. [1496], Ethiopia K000310895
Baur, R. [847] K000310930
Ecklon [272] K000310931
Bowher [s.n.], South Africa K000310932
Schimper [1065], Ethiopia K000311153
Schimper [124], Ethiopia K000311154
Quartin - Dillon [43], Ethiopia K000311155
unknown [49], South Africa K000311156
Mizyakin [s.n.], Kyrgyzstan K000812821
Korovina, O.N. [s.n.], Uzbekistan K000812823
Cope, T.A. [RBG 146], Great Britain K000914228
Hubbard, C.E. [12314], United Kingdom K000742629
Cowan. R.S. [MFF115], United Kingdom K000696462

First published in Sp. Pl.: 347 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
  • Authier, P. & Covillot, J. (2011). Catalogue actualisé des plantes de l'île de Rhodes (Grèce) Saussurea; Travaux de la Société Botanique de Genève 41: 131-170.
  • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Danin, A. & Fragman- Sapir, O. (2019). Flora of Israel Online http://flora.org.il/en/plants/.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. & Edmondson, J.R. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Iraq 5(2): 1-349. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
  • Govaerts, R. (2001). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS E-F: 1-50919.
  • Hocj, P.C. & Raven, P.H. (1981). Flora of Pakistan 139: 1-44. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan Norrlinia 24: 1-166.
  • Lee, S. & al. (2013). Taxonomic studies of tribe Epilobieae ndl. (Onagraceae) in Korea based on morphology and seed microstructure Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy 43: 208-222.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Musselman, L.J. (2011). Checklist of Plants of Lebanon and Syria http://ww2.odu.edu/~lmusselm/plant/lebsyria/Checklist%20of%20Lebanon%20Plants.pdf.
  • Peschkova, G.A. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Siberia 10: 1-314. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
  • Raven, P.H. (1964). Flora Iranica 7: 1-19. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz.
  • Sekar, K.C. & Srivastava, S.K. (2009). Additions to the flora of Lahaul-Spiti from Pin valley national park Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 22-25.
  • Shishkin, B.K. (ed.) (1950). Flora Turkmenii 5: 1-271. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • Taton, A. (1967). Flore du Congo du Rwanda et du Burundi, Onagraceae: 1-25. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique, Bruxelles.
  • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1959). Flora Uzbekistana 4: 1-507. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Literature

Flora of Iraq

  • Boiss., Fl. Orient. 2: 746 (1872);
  • Chamberlain & Raven in Davis, Fl. Turk. 4: 187 (1972);
  • Chaudhary, Fl. Kingd. Saudi Arabia 2(1): 229 (2001).
  • Collenette, Fl. Saudi Arabia (illustr.). 580 (1999);
  • Guest in Dep. Agr. Iraq Bull. 27: 31 (1933);
  • Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. ed. 1, 347 (1753);
  • Raven & Hoch in Nasir & Ali, Fl. Pak. 139: 16 (1981);
  • Raven in Rech.f., Fl. Iranica 7: 7 (1964);
  • Raven in Tutin et al., Fl. Europaea 2: 309 (1968);
  • Zohary in Dep. Agr. Iraq Bull. 31: 108 (1950);
  • Zohary, Fl. Palest. ed. 2, 1: 473 (1932);

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • ( 2021-continuously updated). Natural Resources Conservation Services Plant Database http://plants.usda.gov/cgi_bin/topics.cgi?earl=checklist.html.
  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
  • Authier, P. & Covillot, J. (2011). Catalogue actualisé des plantes de l'île de Rhodes (Grèce) Saussurea; Travaux de la Société Botanique de Genève 41: 131-170.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Danin, A. & Fragman- Sapir, O. (2019). Flora of Israel Online http://flora.org.il/en/plants/.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
  • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan Norrlinia 24: 1-166.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Musselman, L.J. (2011). Checklist of Plants of Lebanon and Syria http://ww2.odu.edu/~lmusselm/plant/lebsyria/Checklist%20of%20Lebanon%20Plants.pdf.
  • Peschkova, G.A. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Siberia 10: 1-314. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
  • Shishkin, B.K. (ed.) (1950). Flora Turkmenii 5: 1-271. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1959). Flora Uzbekistana 4: 1-507. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Hausskn., Monogr. Epilobium 53 (1884).
  • L., Sp. Pl. 347 (1753), excl. var. ? (=E. parviflorum (Schreb.) Schreb.).

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Iraq
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/