1. Family: Amaranthaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Pupalia Juss.
      1. Pupalia grandiflora Peter

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Ethiopia to N. Mozambique, N. Yemen.

    [FTEA]

    Amaranthaceae, C.C. Townsend. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1985

    Habit
    Perennial herb, often rather woody at the base, scandent, trailing or more rarely erect, 1–2(–4) m., much branched; stem and branches weak, terete, striate, thinly to moderately furnished with whitish multicellular hairs, the older basal internodes finally glabrescent.
    Leaves
    Leaves lanceolate to broadly ovate, acuminate, those of the stem and branches 3.2–14 × 2.2–6 cm. including the 1–2.5 cm. petiole, dark green and thinly rather long-pilose on the upper surface, paler and more densely and shortly pubescent beneath (rarely tomentose on the midrib and principal veins), rounded to cuneate at the base; upper leaves of stem and branches rapidly reducing in size.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences considerably elongating as the flowers open and finally up to 35(–48) cm. long including the (up to 9 cm.) peduncle, solitary and terminal on the stem and branches, axis moderately spreading pilose or densely tomentose.
    Bracts
    Bracts lanceolate, 3–4 mm., darkly membranous-margined, persistent, moderately pilose, each subtending a partial inflorescence of 3–7 fertile flowers, most of which are set between 2 modified sterile flowers, but the central solitary.
    Bracteoles
    Bracteoles of sterile flowers ovate-lanceolate, ± 4 mm., membranous with a green midrib which is excurrent in a distinct brownish arista, thinly to moderately pilose. Bracteoles of triads of 1 fertile and 2 sterile flowers broadly deltoid-ovate, ± 4 mm., abruptly shortly acuminate with a sharp yellowish to dark mucro formed by the excurrent midrib, broadly membranous-margined below, moderately densely pilose dorsally.
    Tepal
    Tepals (6–)7–8 mm., 3-nerved in the green centre with the nerves confluent above to form a short sharp mucro, narrowly oblong-lanceolate; outer 2 tepals slightly longer, ± uniformly long-pilose, narrowly membranous-margined, the inner 3 more broadly pale-margined (not conspicuously so since the margins are incurved), more densely long-pilose.
    Style
    Style long and slender, (2.75–)3–3.5 mm.
    Flowers
    Sterile flowers dendroidly branched with several divaricate branches each ending in (6–)9–15(–20) hooked setae up to ± 6 mm. long, usually brownish but occasionally yellow, forming a very dense globose burr ± 1.5–2.2 cm. in diameter, concealing the fertile flowers.
    Fruits
    Fruit an oblong-ovoid capsule 2–2.25 mm. long, rupturing irregularly at the thin-walled base.
    Seeds
    Seed ovoid, ± 2 mm., black, almost smooth, shining.
    Figures
    Fig. 16/5–7.
    Habitat
    Mostly at forest edges, along rides and in clearings, also in open woodland, in bush and along rivers – apparently always in more or less undisturbed habitats; 1150–2000 m.
    Distribution
    K1 K3 K4 K6 T2 T3 T6 U2 U4
    [FZ]

    Amaranthaceae, C. C. Townsend. Flora Zambesiaca 9:1. 1988

    Habit
    Perennial (?) herb, often rather woody at the base, scandent or more rarely erect, 1–2(4) m., much-branched, stem and branches weak, terete, striate, thinly to moderately furnished with whitish multicellular hairs, the older basal internodes finally glabrescent.
    Leaves
    Leaves lanceolate to broadly ovate, acuminate, those of the stem and branches 3.2–14 × 2.2–6 cm. including the 1–2.5 cm. petiole, dark green and thinly rather long-pilose on the upper surface, paler and more densely and shortly pubescent beneath (rarely tomentose on the midrib and principal veins), rounded to cuneate at the base; superior leaves of stem and branches rapidly reducing in size.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences thyrsoid, considerably elongating as the flowers open and finally up to 35 (48) cm. long including the (up to 9 cm.) peduncle, solitary and terminal on the stem and branches, axis moderately spreading-pilose or densely tomentose.
    Bracts
    Bracts lanceolate, 3–4 mm., darkly membranous-margined, persistent, moderately pilose, each subtending a partial inflorescence of 3–7 fertile flowers, most of which are set between two modified sterile flowers, but the central solitary.
    Bracteoles
    Bracteoles of triads of 1 fertile and 2 sterile flowers broadly deltoid-ovate, c.4 mm. long, abruptly shortly acuminate with a sharp yellowish to dark mucro formed by the excurrent midrib, broadly membranous-margined below, moderately densely pilose dorsally. Bracteoles of sterile flowers ovate-lanceolate, c.4 mm. long, membranous with a green midrib which is excurrent in a distinct brownish arista, thinly to moderately pilose.
    Tepal
    Tepals (6)7–8 mm. long, 3-nerved in the green centre with the nerves confluent above to form a short, sharp mucro, narrowly oblong-lanceolate; outer 2 tepals slightly longer, more or less uniformly long-pilose, narrowly membranous-margined, the inner 3 more broadly pale-margined (not conspicuously so since the margins are incurved), more densely long-pilose.
    Style
    Style long and slender, (2.75)3–3.5 mm. long.
    Flowers
    Sterile flowers dendroidly branched with several divaricate branches each ending in (6)9–15 (20) hooked setae up to c. 6 mm. long, usually brownish but occasionally yellow, forming a very dense globose "burr" c. 1.5–2.2 cm. in diam., concealing the fertile flowers.
    Sterile
    Sterile flowers dendroidly branched with several divaricate branches each ending in (6)9–15 (20) hooked setae up to c. 6 mm. long, usually brownish but occasionally yellow, forming a very dense globose "burr" c. 1.5–2.2 cm. in diam., concealing the fertile flowers.
    Fruits
    Fruit an oblong-ovoid capsule 2–2.25 mm. long, rupturing irregularly at the thin-walled base; seed c. 2 mm. long, ovoid, black, almost smooth, shining.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Rwanda, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zaïre

    Pupalia grandiflora Peter appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Peter, A. [8617], Tanzania K000243652 Unknown type material

    First published in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 40(2, Anh.): 22 (1932)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Launert, E. (ed.) (1988). Flora Zambesiaca 9(1): 1-179. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Townsend, C.C. (1985). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Amaranthaceae: 1-136.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1978). Flora du Rwanda 1: 1-413. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Launert, E. (ed.) (1988). Flora Zambesiaca 9(1): 1-179. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1978). Flora du Rwanda 1: 1-413. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • C.C. Townsend in Kew Bulletin 34: 134 (1979).
    • Hauman in Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, 2: 61 (1951).
    • Robyns, Flore des Spermatophytes du Parc National Albert 1: 134 (1948).
    • Peter in F. R. Beih. 40(2), Descr.: 22 (1932).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0