1. Family: Amaranthaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Pupalia Juss.
      1. Pupalia lappacea (L.) Juss.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Mozambique to S. Africa, Indian Subcontinent.

    [FTEA]

    Amaranthaceae, C.C. Townsend. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1985

    Habit
    Annual or perennial herb, ± erect and ± 0.3–0 .9 m. tall, or prostrate and sprawling, or subscandent and scrambling to as much as 2.5 m.; stem generally much branched and swollen at the nodes, branches opposite, divaricate or ascending, slender, obtusely 4-angled to almost terete, thinly pilose to densely tomentose.
    Leaves
    Leaves variable in shape and size, from narrowly ovate-elliptic to oblong or circular, 2–10(–14) × 1–5(–7)cm., acuminate to obtuse-apiculate or retuse at the summit, shortly or more longly cuneate at the base, narrowed to a petiole 2–2.5(–3.5) cm. long; indumentum of lamina varying from sericeous or tomentose to subglabrous with a few hairs running vertically along the lower surface of the primary venation, rarely quite glabrous, commonly moderately pilose with the hairs along the nerves divergent.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences at first ± dense, elongating to as much as 0.5 m. in fruit with the lower flowers becoming increasingly remote; axis subglabrous to tomentose; peduncle ± 1–10 cm.; bracts lanceolate, 1.5–2.5 mm., persistent, ± deflexed after the fall of the fruit, subglabrous or pilose, sharply mucronate with the percurrent midrib; partial inflorescences mostly of 1 solitary hermaphrodite flower subtended on each side by a triad of 1 hermaphrodite and 2 modified flowers; bracteoles of each triad broadly subcordate-ovate, (2.75–)3–5(–6) mm., abruptly narrowed to the stramineous to dark arista formed by the excurrent midrib, membranous with a pale margin, thinly to very densely hairy; bracteoles of sterile flowers ovate-lanceolate, usually more shortly and less densely pilose.
    Tepal
    Tepals oblong-ovate to lanceolate-ovate, ± quickly narrowed to a rather obtuse-mucronate apex to gradually narrowed and acute-aristate, the outer 2 (3–)4–5(–6) mm., subglabrous to ± tomentose dorsally, 3(–5)-nerved, the midrib and 2 inner nerves confluent just below the apex and excurrent in the mucro or short arista, inner 3 slightly shorter and more densely pilose.
    Branches
    Branches of sterile flowers 3, each terminating in (3–)5–18(–20+) setae in 1–3 ranks; setae subglabrous to ± villous in the lower half, yellowish to purple or red, (1.5–)3–7 mm., the partial inflorescence falling intact to form a burr ± 8–18 mm. in diameter.
    Style
    Style short to rather slender, (0.5–)0.9–2(–3) mm.
    Fruits
    Capsule ovoid, 2–2.5 mm.
    Seeds
    Seed oblong-ovoid with a prominent radicle, 2 mm. long, dark brown, shining; testa at first faintly reticulate but finally smooth or punctulate.
    Distribution
    K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 widespread in the tropics of the Old Worldthroughout tropical Africa N. to Egypt, also in South Africa and Madagascar, Arabia and Asia from India eastwards to Malaya, the Malayan Is. (Java, Celebes, etc.), the Philippines and New Guineaintroduced in Australia, etc.
    [FZ]

    Amaranthaceae, C. C. Townsend. Flora Zambesiaca 9:1. 1988

    Tepal
    Tepals oblong-ovate to lanceolate-ovate, more or less quickly narrowed to a rather obtuse mucronate apex to gradually narrowed and acute-aristate, the outer two (3.5)4–5(6) mm. long, subglabrous to more or less tomentose dorsally, 3(5)-nerved, the midrib and 2 inner nerves confluent just below the apex and excurrent in the mucro or short arista, inner 3 slightly shorter and more densely pilose.
    Branches
    Branches of sterile flowers 3, each terminating in (3)5–18 (20) mm. long setae in 1–3 ranks; setae subglabrous to more or less villous in the lower half, yellowish to purple or red, (1.5)3–7 mm., the partial inflorescence falling intact to form a burr c. 8–18 cm. in diam.
    Style
    Style short to rather slender, (0.5)0.9–2(3) mm. long.
    Fruits
    Capsule ovoid, 2–2.5 mm. long.
    Seeds
    Seed oblong-ovoid with a prominent radicle, 2 mm. long, dark brown, shining, testa at first faintly reticulate but finally smooth or punctulate.
    Habit
    Annual or perennial herb, more or less erect and c. 0.3–0.9 m. tall, or prostrate and sprawling, or subscandent and scrambling to as much as 2.5 m., stem generally much-branched and swollen at the nodes, branches opposite, divaricate or ascending, slender; stems and branches obtusely 4-angled to almost terete, thinly pilose to densely tomentose.
    Leaves
    Leaves variable to shape and size, from narrowly ovate-elliptic to oblong or circular, 2 10 (14) × 1–5(7) cm., acuminate to obtuse-apiculate or retuse at the summit, shortly or more longly cuneate at the base, narrowed to a petiole 0.5–2.5(3.5) cm. long; indumentum of lamina varying from sericeous or tomentose to subglabrous with a few hairs running vertically along the lower surface of the primary venation, rarely quite glabrous, commonly moderately pilose with the hairs along the nerves divergent.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences at first more or less dense, elongating to as much as 0.5 m. in fruit with the lower flowers becoming increasingly remote, axis subglabrous to tomentose, peduncle c. 1–10 cm. long; bracts lanceolate, 1.5–2.5 mm. long, persistent, more or less deflexed after the fall of the fruit, subglabrous or pilose, sharply mucronate with the percurrent midrib; partial inflorescences mostly of one solitary hermaphrodite flower subtended on each side by a triad of one hermaphrodite and 2 modified flowers; bracteoles of each triad broadly subcordate-ovate, (2.75)3–5(6) mm., abruptly narrowed to the stramineous to dark arista forming by the excurrent midrib, membranous with a pale margin, thinly to very densely hairy; bracteoles of sterile flowers ovate-lanceolate, usually more shortly and less densely pilose.
    [FWTA]

    Amaranthaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

    Habit
    A weed, 2–4 ft. high, sometimes woody below
    Flowers
    Greenish flowers
    Stamens
    Yellow or red stamens
    Fruits
    Burr fruits.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Bangladesh, Cape Provinces, Free State, Gulf States, India, KwaZulu-Natal, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Northern Provinces, Oman, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, West Himalaya, Yemen

    Pupalia lappacea (L.) Juss. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2012 I Made Maduarta (Pung) [IMM 157], Indonesia K000734813
    Cuming, H. [1635], Philippines Aerva velutina K000848079 Unknown type material
    Cuming, H. [1635], Philippines Aerva velutina K000848080
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 6933], Nepal Desmochaeta atropurpurea K001126278
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 6933] Desmochaeta atropurpurea K001126279
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 6933] Desmochaeta atropurpurea K001126280
    De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 6933] Desmochaeta atropurpurea K001126277
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6933], India Desmochaeta atropurpurea K001126268
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6933], India Desmochaeta atropurpurea K001126269
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6933] Desmochaeta atropurpurea K001126270
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6933] Desmochaeta atropurpurea K001126271
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6933], India Desmochaeta atropurpurea K001126272
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6933] Desmochaeta atropurpurea K001126273
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6933] Desmochaeta atropurpurea K001126274
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6933], India Desmochaeta atropurpurea K001126275
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6933], India Desmochaeta atropurpurea K001126276
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 6937], Myanmar Desmochaeta patula K001126299
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6937] Desmochaeta patula K001126298

    First published in Ann. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 2: 132 (1803)

    Accepted by

    • Sikarwar, R.L.S. (2014). Angiosperm diversity assessment of Chitrakootthe legendary place of Vindhyan range, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 38: 563-619.
    • Shaheen, H., Qureshi, R., Akram, A., Gulfraz, M. & Potter, D. (2014). A preliminary floristic checklist of Thal desert Punjab, Pakistan Pakistn Journal of Botany 46: 13-18.
    • Velayos, M., Barberá, P., Cabezas, F.J., de la Estrella, M., Fero, M. & Aedo, C. (2014). Checklist of the vascular plants of Annobón (Equatorial Guinea) Phytotaxa 171: 1-78.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India Nelumbo 54: 39-91.
    • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Aké Assi, L. (2001). Flore de la Côte-d'Ivoire: catalogue systématique, biogéographie et écologie. I Boissiera 57: 1-396.
    • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
    • Boulos, L. (1999). Flora of Egypt 1: 1-419. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1993). Flora of Somalia 1: 1-493. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Launert, E. (ed.) (1988). Flora Zambesiaca 9(1): 1-179. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Townsend, C.C. (1985). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Amaranthaceae: 1-136.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Chev. Bot. 529.
    • —F.T.A. 6, 1: 47
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Shaheen, H., Qureshi, R., Akram, A., Gulfraz, M. & Potter, D. (2014). A preliminary floristic checklist of Thal desert Punjab, Pakistan Pakistn Journal of Botany 46: 13-18.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India Nelumbo 54: 39-91.
    • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1993). Flora of Somalia 1: 1-493. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • C.C. Townsend in Kew Bulletin 34: 135 (1979).
    • A.D.Q. Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Flowers p. 136 (1974).
    • Cavaco in Mém. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat. Paris, sér. B, 13: 90 (1962).
    • E. Lind & A. Tallantire, Some Common Flowering Plants of Uganda p. 102 (1962).
    • F. White, Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia p. 45 (1962).
    • Hauman in Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, 2: 60 (1951).
    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 1: 122 (1950).
    • Robyns, Flore des Spermatophytes du Parc National Albert 1: 133 (1948).
    • Peter, Flora von Deutsch-Ostafrika 2: 225 (1932).
    • J. G. Baker & C. B. Clarke in Flora of Tropical Africa 6(1): 47 (1909).
    • Gilg in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C: 173 (1895).
    • A. Juss., Ann. Bus. Hist. Nat. Paris 2: 132 (1803).

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0