1. Family: Amaryllidaceae J.St.-Hil.
    1. Genus: Crinum L.
      1. Crinum purpurascens Herb.

        There are at least 65, and perhaps over 100 according to various classifications, species of Crinum in the tropical and warm countries of America, Africa, Asia and Australia, and more than 20 species can be found in southern Africa alone.

    [KSP]

    Kew Species Profiles

    General Description
    The bulb, leaves and sap of starry crinum are used in traditional medicine in West Africa for treating a range of ailments from pneumonia to snake-bite.

    There are at least 65, and perhaps over 100 according to various classifications, species of Crinum in the tropical and warm countries of America, Africa, Asia and Australia, and more than 20 species can be found in southern Africa alone.

    The name Crinum derives from the Greek krinon, meaning a white lily. Although C. purpurascens has a white flower, it is tinted on the outside with purple as is the flower stalk (scape).

    Species Profile
    Geography and distribution

    Crinum purpurascens occurs in western tropical Africa, from The Gambia to the Democratic Republic of Congo. It also occurs in Sudan and Angola.

    Description

    Crinum purpurascens is a low-growing herbaceous plant. The large bulbs (about 6 cm in diameter) have a short 'neck' made up of the bases of old leaves. The narrow dark green leaves have slightly wavy margins. They measure 50-60 cm long and 3 cm wide and often die back in the winter. They are usually arranged in a rosette or occasionally in two rows.

    The flower stalk (scape) is slender, tinged with purple and bears a cluster (umbel) of 6-10 slightly scented flowers. The elegant flowers have a long perianth tube up to 16 cm long; the narrow white petals are tinted purple on the outside, and stamens have purplish-red filaments. Seeds are large and burst through the wall of the capsule when they are ripe.

    Uses

    Starry crinum is grown as an ornamental and for use in West African traditional medicine. The bulb is an emetic and purgative. A decoction is taken to treat a range of ailments, including pneumonia, ovarian problems and hernias. The leaves are cooked with palm kernels and eaten as an aphrodisiac and to treat snake bite. Scientific research indicates that extracts of the leaves contain antibacterial agents of potential use in the treatment of typhoid fever and urogenital infections.

    This species at Kew

    Starry crinum can be found in the Palm House.

    Starry crinum at Kew in the 19th century

    According to J. G. Baker, writing in Curtis's Botanical Magazine , Crinum purpurascens 'was introduced in the time of Dean Herbert, and is carefully described in his classical work on the Amaryllidaceae, but has never been previously figured. Our drawing was made from a plant that flowered at Kew in June, 1879, the bulb of which was sent by the Rev. H. Goldie, and we have since had it from Messrs. Veitch, from bulbs brought home by Mr Kalbreyer.'

    The two clergymen mentioned by J. G. Baker were The Hon. William Herbert (1778-1847), Dean of Manchester, a keen and accomplished amateur botanist, and Rev. Hugh Goldie, a Scottish missionary who lived at Calabar in southeastern Nigeria from 1848 until his death in 1895. The Veitch Nursery was instrumental in bringing many new plants, especially tropical flowering and foliage species, to Britain. Mr Kalbreyer was a German employed by James Veitch & Sons to collect plants in Africa and South America from 1876-1881.

    Ecology
    River banks in rain forests.
    Conservation
    Not evaluated according to IUCN Red List criteria.
    Hazards

    None known.

    [FWTA]

    Amaryllidaceae, F. N. Hepper. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:1. 1968

    Habit
    Small bulb
    Flowers
    Flowers with extremely narrow segments, white or purplish lined.
    [KSP]
    Use
    Ornamental, medicinal.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Cameroon, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Zaïre

    Common Names

    English
    Starry crinum

    Crinum purpurascens Herb. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Mar 1, 2006 Cheek, M. [11759], Cameroon K000339030
    Apr 1, 2001 Etuge, M. [2491], Cameroon K000050283

    First published in Amaryllidaceae: 250 (1837)

    Accepted by

    • Velayos, M. & al. (eds.) (2018). Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial 10: 1-491. Consejo superior de investigaciones científicas, Real jardín botánico, Madrid.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
    • Berhaut, J. (1988). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 9: 1-522. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
    • (1986). Flore du Gabon 28: 1-60. Muséum National D'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
    • Geerinck, D. (1973). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaïre - Rwanda - Burundi) Amaryllidaceae: 1-23. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique, Meise.
    • Andrews, F.W. (1956). The Flowering Plants of the Sudan 3: 1-579. T.Buncle & co., LTD., Arbroath, Scotland.

    Literature

    Kew Species Profiles
    • World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (2010). Crinum purpurascens. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Nkanwen, E.R.S., Gatsing, D., Ngamga, D. et al. (2009). Antibacterial agents from the leaves of Crinum purpurascens herb (Amaryllidaceae). African Health Sciences 9: 264-269.
    • Burkill, H.M. (1985). The Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa. Edition 2. Vol. 1. Families A-D. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Veitch, J.H. (1906). Hortus Veitchii. Privately printed, London.
    • Hooker, J.D. (1880). Crinum purpurascens. Curtis’s Botanical Magazine 106: t. 6525.
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Chev. in Rev. Bot. Appliq. 30: 616 (1950).
    • F.T.A. 7: 396
    • Bot. Mag. t. 6525
    • Amaryllid. 250 (1837)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Berhaut, J. (1988). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 9: 1-522. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
    • (1986). Flore du Gabon 28: 1-60. Muséum National D'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
    • Geerinck, D. (1973). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaïre - Rwanda - Burundi) Amaryllidaceae: 1-23. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique, Meise.

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Species Profiles
    Kew Species Profiles
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0