1. Family: Amaryllidaceae J.St.-Hil.
    1. Genus: Crinum L.
      1. Crinum purpurascens Herb.

        There are at least 65, and perhaps over 100 according to various classifications, species of Crinum in the tropical and warm countries of America, Africa, Asia and Australia, and more than 20 species can be found in southern Africa alone.

    [FWTA]

    Amaryllidaceae, F. N. Hepper. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:1. 1968

    Habit
    Small bulb
    Flowers
    Flowers with extremely narrow segments, white or purplish lined.
    [KSP]

    Kew Species Profiles

    General Description
    The bulb, leaves and sap of starry crinum are used in traditional medicine in West Africa for treating a range of ailments from pneumonia to snake-bite.

    There are at least 65, and perhaps over 100 according to various classifications, species of Crinum in the tropical and warm countries of America, Africa, Asia and Australia, and more than 20 species can be found in southern Africa alone.

    The name Crinum derives from the Greek krinon, meaning a white lily. Although C. purpurascens has a white flower, it is tinted on the outside with purple as is the flower stalk (scape).

    Species Profile

    Geography and distribution

    Crinum purpurascens occurs in western tropical Africa, from The Gambia to the Democratic Republic of Congo. It also occurs in Sudan and Angola.

    Description

    Crinum purpurascens is a low-growing herbaceous plant. The large bulbs (about 6 cm in diameter) have a short ‘neck’ made up of the bases of old leaves. The narrow dark green leaves have slightly wavy margins. They measure 50–60 cm long and 3 cm wide and often die back in the winter. They are usually arranged in a rosette or occasionally in two rows.

    The flower stalk (scape) is slender, tinged with purple and bears a cluster (umbel) of 6–10 slightly scented flowers. The elegant flowers have a long perianth tube up to 16 cm long; the narrow white petals are tinted purple on the outside, and stamens have purplish-red filaments. Seeds are large and burst through the wall of the capsule when they are ripe.

    Illustration from Curtis's Botanical Magazine

    Curtis’s Botanical Magazine (Editor: Martyn Rix) provides an international forum of particular interest to botanists and horticulturists, plant ecologists and those with a special interest in botanical illustration.

    Now well over two hundred years old, the Magazineis the longest running botanical periodical featuring colour illustrations of plants. Each four-part volume contains 24 plant portraits reproduced from watercolour originals by leading international botanical artists. Detailed but accessible articles combine horticultural and botanical information, history, conservation and economic uses of the plants described.

    Published for the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew by Wiley-Blackwell Publishing.

    Find out more about Curtis's Botanical Magazine

    Uses

    Starry crinum is grown as an ornamental and for use in West African traditional medicine. The bulb is an emetic and purgative. A decoction is taken to treat a range of ailments, including pneumonia, ovarian problems and hernias. The leaves are cooked with palm kernels and eaten as an aphrodisiac and to treat snake bite. Scientific research indicates that extracts of the leaves contain antibacterial agents of potential use in the treatment of typhoid fever and urogenital infections.

    This species at Kew

    Starry crinum can be found in the Palm House.

    Starry crinum at Kew in the 19th century

    According to J. G. Baker, writing in Curtis’s Botanical Magazine, Crinum purpurascens ‘was introduced in the time of Dean Herbert, and is carefully described in his classical work on the Amaryllidaceae, but has never been previously figured. Our drawing was made from a plant that flowered at Kew in June, 1879, the bulb of which was sent by the Rev. H. Goldie, and we have since had it from Messrs. Veitch, from bulbs brought home by Mr Kalbreyer.’

    The two clergymen mentioned by J. G. Baker were The Hon. William Herbert (1778-1847), Dean of Manchester, a keen and accomplished amateur botanist, and Rev. Hugh Goldie, a Scottish missionary who lived at Calabar in southeastern Nigeria from 1848 until his death in 1895. The Veitch Nursery was instrumental in bringing many new plants, especially tropical flowering and foliage species, to Britain. Mr Kalbreyer was a German employed by James Veitch & Sons to collect plants in Africa and South America from 1876-1881.

    Ecology
    River banks in rain forests.
    Conservation
    Not evaluated according to IUCN Red List criteria.
    Hazards

    None known.

    [KSP]
    Use
    Ornamental, medicinal.

    Images

    Distribution

    Found In:

    Angola, Cameroon, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Zaïre

    Common Names

    English
    Starry crinum

    Crinum purpurascens Herb. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Identified Reference Herbarium Specimen Type Status
    Mar 1, 2006 Cheek, M. [11759], Cameroon K000339030
    Apr 1, 2001 Etuge, M. [2491], Cameroon K000050283

    First published in Amaryllidaceae: 250 (1837)

    Accepted in:

    • [2] (2009) Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517
    • [4] (2006) Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438
    • [5] Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006) Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau . Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • [7] Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005) Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo , ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • [9] Govaerts, R. (1999) World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
    • [10] Berhaut, J. (1988) Flore illustrée du Sénégal 9: 1-522. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
    • [11] (1986) Flore du Gabon 28: 1-60. Muséum National D'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
    • [13] (1973) Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaïre - Rwanda - Burundi) Amaryllidaceae: 1-23. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique, Meise.
    • [14] Andrews, F.W. (1956) The Flowering Plants of the Sudan 3: 1-579. T.Buncle & co., LTD., Arbroath, Scotland.

    Literature

    • [1] World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (2010). Crinum purpurascens. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • [3] Nkanwen, E.R.S., Gatsing, D., Ngamga, D. et al. (2009). Antibacterial agents from the leaves of Crinum purpurascens herb (Amaryllidaceae). African Health Sciences 9: 264-269.
    • [6] Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006) Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau . Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • [8] Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005) Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo , ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • [12] Burkill, H.M. (1985). The Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa. Edition 2. Vol. 1. Families A-D. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • [15] Chev. in Rev. Bot. Appliq. 30: 616 (1950).
    • [16] Veitch, J.H. (1906). Hortus Veitchii. Privately printed, London.
    • [17] F.T.A. 7: 396
    • [18] Bot. Mag. t. 6525
    • [19] Hooker, J.D. (1880). Crinum purpurascens. Curtis’s Botanical Magazine 106: t. 6525.
    • [20] Amaryllid. 250 (1837)

    Sources

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    [A] http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    International Plant Names Index
    The International Plant Names Index (2016). Published on the Internet http://www.ipni.org
    [B] © Copyright 2016 International Plant Names Index. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Species Profiles
    Kew Species Profiles
    [C] http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    [D]

    World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
    World Checklist of Selected Plant Families(2016). Published on the Internet http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    [E] See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    [F] © Copyright 2016 International Plant Names Index and World Checkist of Selected Plant Families. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0