1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Cortaderia Stapf
      1. Cortaderia bifida Pilg.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Costa Rica to Bolivia.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Culms 100-300 cm long; 2-3 mm diam. Culm-nodes glabrous, or pubescent. Lateral branches lacking. Leaf-sheaths glabrous on surface. Ligule a fringe of hairs; 1-1.5 mm long. Leaf-blades 20-100 cm long; 5-10 mm wide. Leaf-blade margins scabrous.
    Inflorescences
    Gynodioecious (male, in this context, indicating the bisexual state). Inflorescence a panicle; embraced at base by subtending leaf. Panicle open; lanceolate; 30-40 cm long; 8-10 cm wide. Primary panicle branches 10-20 cm long. Panicle branches scabrous. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels 1.5-4 mm long; scabrous. Male inflorescence bisexual similar to female; a panicle. Male spikelets resembling female.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 3 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets cuneate; laterally compressed; 7-8.5 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus evident; 1 mm long; pilose. Floret callus hairs 1.5-2 mm long.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 3 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets cuneate; laterally compressed; 7-8.5 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus evident; 1 mm long; pilose. Floret callus hairs 1.5-2 mm long.
    Glume
    Glumes similar; reaching apex of florets; similar to fertile lemma in texture; gaping. Lower glume lanceolate; 7-8 mm long; 1 length of upper glume; membranous; without keels; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume margins ciliolate. Lower glume apex entire, or dentate; 2 -fid; acute. Upper glume lanceolate; 8-14 mm long; 1.2 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; without keels; 1 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins absent. Upper glume margins ciliolate. Upper glume apex entire, or dentate; 2 -fid; acute.
    Florets
    Fertile florets female. Fertile lemma lanceolate; 6-7 mm long; membranous; without keel; 5 -veined. Lemma surface scaberulous; plumose; hairy below. Lemma margins ciliate. Lemma hairs 4-6 mm long. Lemma apex lobed; 2 -fid; with filiform lobes; with lobes 1.5-2 mm long; acuminate; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn 6.5-7.8 mm long overall. Palea lanceolate; 4.5-5 mm long; 0.66 length of lemma; 2 -veined. Palea keels ciliolate. Palea surface pilose; hairy on flanks. Palea apex emarginate, or truncate. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2; cuneate; fleshy. Anthers 3.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp.
    Male
    Male inflorescence bisexual similar to female; a panicle. Male spikelets resembling female.
    Distribution
    South America: Mesoamericana, northern South America, and western South America.
    Reference
    Arundineae. Conert 1993.
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 2500 - 4000 m.; Andes.
    Habit
    Hierba
    Conservation
    No Evaluada

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Panamá, Peru, Venezuela

    Cortaderia bifida Pilg. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2008 Wood, J.R.I. [11119], Bolivia K000709672
    Jan 1, 2008 Wood, J.R.I. [11071], Bolivia K000709673
    Jan 1, 2008 Wood, J.R.I. [11071], Bolivia K000709674
    Jan 1, 2008 Lewis, M. [88645], Bolivia K000709669
    Jan 1, 2008 Lewis, M. [881015], Bolivia K000709675
    Jan 1, 2008 White, O.E. [190], Bolivia K000709670
    Jan 1, 2008 Laegaard, S. [70575], Ecuador K000709662
    Jan 1, 2008 Pennell, F.W. [7494], Colombia K000709664
    Jan 1, 2008 Beck, St. G. [18816], Bolivia K000709671
    Jan 1, 2008 Beck, St. G. [25140], Bolivia K000709679
    Jan 1, 2008 Solomon, J.C. [10684], Bolivia K000709676
    Jan 1, 1993 Lopez, A. [8153], Peru K000709666
    Jan 1, 1993 Renvoize, S.A. [4353], Peru K000709665
    Jan 1, 1991 Solomon, J.C. [13695], Bolivia K000709677
    Jan 1, 1991 Renvoize, S.A. [4185], Bolivia K000709681
    Jan 1, 1991 Renvoize, S.A. [4202], Bolivia K000709682
    Jan 1, 1991 Renvoize, S.A. [4186], Bolivia K000709683
    Jan 1, 1991 Wurdack, J.J. [1396], Peru K000709667
    Nov 1, 1988 Beck, St. G. [4837], Bolivia K000709678
    Nov 1, 1988 Beck, St. G. [1816], Bolivia K000709680
    Jan 1, 1988 Laegaard, S.. [53582], Ecuador K000709656
    Jan 1, 1988 Laegaard, S.. [52893], Ecuador K000709657
    Jan 1, 1988 Laegaard, S.. [53808], Ecuador K000709658
    Jan 1, 1988 Laegaard, S.. [54016], Ecuador K000709659
    Pohl, R.W. [11137], Costa Rica K000709626
    Hamilton, A.C. [1153], Peru K000709668
    Davidse, G. [5797A], Colombia K000709663
    Ramsay, P.M. [592], Ecuador K000709660
    Ramsay, P.M. [592], Ecuador K000709661

    First published in Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 37: 374 (1906)

    Accepted by

    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
    • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
    • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286.

    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0