1. Family: Arecaceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Genus: Calamus L.
      1. Calamus andamanicus Kurz

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Andaman Islands (incl. Coco Islands), Nicobar Islands.

    [PW]
    Biology
    Flowering November - December. Fruiting April-May.
    General Description
    Solitary, large diameter rattan. Stem 24 m long or more, with sheaths to 8 cm in diameter, without sheaths to 4.5 cm, straw - yellow when exposed. Leaf 4 m long, cirrate; sheath slightly pale yellow, turning reddish brown, thick woody, with minute bristle like spines: spines upto 0.3 cm long, arranged in comb- like narrow crests, deciduous, mouth of the sheath with spines to 1.2 cm long; knee present; ocrea indistinct; petiole very robust, upto 5 cm broad at the base, with small spines on the margins; spines upto 0.4 cm long, often interspersed with a few smaller ones; rachis spiny along the margins and along the adaxial side at the distal end; leaflets 32-51 x 2.5-4 cm, regular, midvein prominent, lateral veins bristly on the upper surface; bristles 0.7 cm long; midvein and two lateral veins bristly on the lower surface, bristles of the midvein longer; margins with small spines; cirrus with whorls of 4-7 black tipped claws. Inflorescence erect; male inflorescence 1.25 m long, panicled: primary sheath tubular, 8-10 cm long, slightly enlarged above, the upper ones longitudinally split, sparingly armed with prickles; partial inflorescence to 80 cm long, twice branched; secondary sheaths unarmed, rachillae 2-2.5 cm long, often arched, with 15-20 bifarious flowers on each side; female inflorescence flaglliferous or not, primary sheath not tightly sheathing, armed with spines to 0.6 cm long; partial inflorescence 30 cm long: secondary sheath upper part splits open: rachillae 4-6 cm long, involucre cup-shaped. Fruit elliptic ovoid, ca. 1.4 x 0.9 cm; scales in 17 vertical rows, brown with dark brown border, slightly channelled, having an appendage of 0.3 cm long at the apex; endosperm not ruminate.
    Vernacular
    Motto, beth
    Distribution
    In evergreen forests upto 260 m; Andaman and Nicobar Islands. (Maps 2-4).
    [PW]
    General Description
    Solitary, large diameter rattan. Stem to 15 m long, basal part stand erect, rest climbing, with sheaths 5 cm in diameter without sheaths 3 cm in diameter, basal nodes with exposed roots. Leaves 2 m long, cirratejuvenile leaf not cirrate; sheath yellow, armed with spines; spines jet black, in tufts below the knee, arranged on a raised rim in semicircles, mouth of the sheath with longer spines; knee present; ocrea not seen; petiole armed with black spines: rachis with small spines to 0.5 cm long: leaflets c.o. 55 x 3.5 cm, regular, linear lanceolate, 3 veined, veins ciliate on the ventral side, cilia to 0.8 cm long. Inflorescence long flagellate; primary sheath upper part papery; partial inflorescence 50 cm long; secondary sheath upper part papery; splits open; involucrophorum present, involucre cup shaped; fruiting perianth stalked. Fruit ovoid - elliptic, ca. 1.5x1 cm; scales in 15 vertical rows, brown with light brown margin, not channelled in the middle; endosperm not ruminate.
    Distribution
    Evergreen forests at Car Nicobar (Map 3).
    Biology
    Flowering November - December. Fruiting April - May.
    [PW]
    Use
    Extensively used in furniture industry. Leaves are used for thatching.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Nicobar Is.

    Calamus andamanicus Kurz appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Kurz, S. [s.n.], Andaman Is. K000697965 isotype
    Kurz, S. [s.n.], Andaman Is. K000697966 isotype

    First published in J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 43: 211 (1874)

    Accepted by

    • Sreekumar, V.B. & Henderson, A. (2014). Nomenclatural notes on Indian Calamus (Arecaceae) Phytotaxa 166: 145-149.
    • Henderson, A. (2009). Palms of Southern Asia: 1-197. Princeton university press, Princeton and Oxford.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    • C. Renuka, A Manual of the Rattans of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. 1995
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Sreekumar, V.B. & Henderson, A. (2014). Nomenclatural notes on Indian Calamus (Arecaceae) Phytotaxa 166: 145-149.

    Sources

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
    Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0