1. Family: Arecaceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Genus: Calamus L.
      1. Calamus arborescens Griff.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Bangladesh to W. Thailand.

    [PW]
    General Description
    A non-climbing colony forming rattan; stem erect, strong, 3 - 5 m long, 4-6 cm in diameter, annulate, internodes about 20 cm long. Leaves arching, 2 - 2.5 m long; leafsheath, petiole and rachis covered with thick, black, subulate, seriate to pectinate, 1 - 4 cm long, black spines; leaflets 40 - 80 cm long, equidistant, deep green above, whitish beneath, spiny at margins, acuminate to thinly bristly at apices, prominently bristly on upper and lower midnerve. Inflorescences interfoliar, to 2 m long, pendulous, much attenuate towards apex; peduncle smooth, compressed, green; bracts 20 - 30 cm long, lacerate at upper part, thickly spiny below; male rachillae scorpioid; male flowers distichous, calyx cupular, 3-lobed, leathery, petals acute, valvate; filaments longer than corolla; anthers linear, exerted; pistillode angular, with 3 abortive carpels united up to the middle. Female flowers and fruits not seen in cultivated plants.
    Biology
    It is understood from the cultivated plants that this species prefers to grow on moist soil.
    Distribution
    BURMA, INDOCHINA, MALAY PENINSULA. Although this species has no natural distribution in India, it is grown as ornamental palms in pots or in the garden chiefly for its arborescent habit and glossy leaves. Introduced in the Indian Botanic Garden, Howrah in 1810 from Pegu, Burma. Now the Indian Botanic Garden has several large colonies of this species growing along the ponds and marshy areas.
    [PW]
    Use
    Dried stem is not durable and cannot be bent easily and is therefore unsuitable for making furniture frames. The mature stem can be used as sticks, poles or as roof support in thatched huts. The dried stem can also be used as handles of hatchets etc.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand

    Calamus arborescens Griff. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Oct 22, 1997 Vogt, G.B. [BU71], Burma K000521815
    Griffith [s.n.E32] K000521807
    Griffith [6400], India K000521813
    Griffith [s.n.E32] K000521808
    Griffith [6400], India K000521814
    Griffith [6378], India K000521806 isotype
    Griffith [6378], India K000521805
    Griffith [6378], India K000521804 isotype
    unknown [s.n.E33] K000521811
    Lace, J.H. [5242], Burma K000522412
    Kurz, S. [3327], Burma K000521812
    Furtado, C.X. [SFN30804], Indonesia K000462239
    Jenkins, J.D. [s.n.E34], India K000521809
    Jenkins, J.D. [s.n.E34], India K000521810

    First published in Calcutta J. Nat. Hist. 5: 33 (1845)

    Accepted by

    • Barfod, A.S. & Dransfield, J. (2013). Flora of Thailand 11(3): 323-498. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Henderson, A. (2009). Palms of Southern Asia: 1-197. Princeton university press, Princeton and Oxford.
    • Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Pooma, R. (ed.) (2005). A preliminary check-list of threatened plants in Thailand: 1-193. National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    • S.K. Basu, Rattans (canes) in India. A Monographic Revision. 1992
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Barfod, A.S. & Dransfield, J. (2013). Flora of Thailand 11(3): 323-498. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.

    Sources

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
    Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0