1. Family: Arecaceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Genus: Calamus L.
      1. Calamus aruensis Becc.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Maluku (Buru), Papuasia to N. Queensland.

    [PW]
    Vernacular
    NEW GUINEA: akalane (Namasalang), apo gui (Wamesa), bu (Madang), busep (Jal), dou (Waigeo), kanda (Pidgin), kaunor (Waigeo), kerowa (Karimui), kou (Senderawoi), kuminang (Kote), meya senga (Nuni), minge (Bembi), mumuni (Orokaiva), proway (Berap), sate (Rawa), sauwe (Mata), sehp (Usino), sough (Taka), tek niali (Mianmin), to mur (Ayawasi), to puot (Ayawasi), tub (Yei), wap (Wampar), wampwang (Kaigorin), war (Fas), wil dow (Batanta, Salawati), yapl (Bewani). SOLOMON ISLANDS: haikeletau (Kwaraae), kalitau (Kwaraae), karakara, obai, pata, potonai, tikulu (Bougainville).
    Biology
    Various types of primary and secondary forest vegetations from sea level to 1200 m, most frequently recorded in lowland forest below 500 m.
    Distribution
    Widespread in New Guinea from the Raja Ampat Islands to the Bismarck Archipelago. Also recorded from Aru Islands, the Solomon Islands and from the tip of the Cape York Peninsula, Australia
    Conservation
    Least concern.
    General Description
    Robust, solitary or rarely clustering rattan climbing to 50 m. Stem with sheaths 20 – 50 mm diam., without sheaths 10 – 30 mm diam.; internodes 16 – 39 cm, longer in juveniles. Leaf cirrate, to 5 m long including cirrus and petiole; sheath greyish green to dark green, with sparse to abundant, thin, caducous indumentum of matted grey to brown fibrous scales, with scattered purple-brown scales, spines absent to numerous, 4 – 26 × 1 – 7 mm, dark green to black, planar, triangular, stiff, in some forms each spine divided near the apex into several (most commonly 3) points, spine bases slightly swollen adaxially, most spines of uniform large size, interspersed with few smaller spines, solitary or in irregular partial whorls of up to 5, conspicuous spine impressions on sheath, sheath mouth often unarmed, but sometimes densely armed with numerous small spines; knee 44 – 125 mm long, 21 – 37 mm wide, elongate, rarely armed, colour and indumentum as on sheath; ocrea 3 – 9 mm, forming a low, woody, brown, rarely armed, persistent collar, base of ocrea extending along petiole to an acute angle; flagellum absent; petiole 7 – 90 mm, 11 – 27 mm wide and 6 – 15 mm thick at base, channelled or flat adaxially, rounded abaxially, indumentum as on sheath, with few to many short triangular spines; rachis 1.5 – 3 m, with few to many spines as petiole, with irregularly-arranged grapnel spines abaxially; leaflets 13 – 23 each side of rachis, regular or subregular, broadly lanceolate, cucullate, longest leaflets near middle of leaf, 26 – 66 × 6 – 12.5 cm, apical leaflets 10 – 22 × 0.3 – 0.4 cm, distal leaflets widely spaced, basal leaflets small and often reflexing, leaflet surfaces unarmed or with few bristles 1 – 4 mm on adaxial surface of mid-rib and rarely on other major veins, leaflet margins unarmed or with bristles 1 – 6 mm absent at base and increasing in density towards leaflet apex, transverse veinlets inconspicuous; cirrus 1 – 2.5 m, cirrus grapnel spines arranged irregularly. Staminate inflorescence up to 2.7 m long including 15 – 37 cm sterile tip, branched to 3 orders, inflorescence sometimes emerging from sheath mouth, otherwise inserted near to sheath apex; prophyll c. 30 × 2.2 cm, strictly tubular, with 2 conspicuous keels, prophyll mouth entire, with narrow, acute, triangular limb to one side, sometimes subtending primary branch, indumentum as on sheath, unarmed or with very few, short spines; peduncular bracts absent, rachis bracts 10 – 33 × 0.5 – 1.9 cm, similar to prophyll; primary branches 6 – 9, to 55 cm long, 10 – 30 cm apart, strongly recurving, with up to c. 550 rachillae, bracts on primary and secondary branches funnel-shaped; rachillae 5 – 33 × 0.6 – 1.2 mm, sublinear, glabrous; rachilla bracts 0.5 – 0.6 × 0.6 – 0.9 mm, distichous, glabrous; floral bracteole 0.6 – 0.7 × 0.8 – 1 mm. Staminate flowers 3 – 3.2 × 1.5 mm in bud near anthesis; calyx 1.5 mm diam., tubular in basal 0.8 – 1 mm, with 3 lobes 0.5 × 0.8 – 1 mm, glabrous; corolla 2.5 – 3 × 1.5 mm in bud, tubular in basal 0.7 – 1 mm, glabrous; stamens 6, filaments 1.2 – 1.8 × 0.2 – 0.3 mm, anthers 1.3 – 1.5 × 0.5 – 0.7 mm; pistillode c. 0.2 mm, minutely trifid. Pistillate inflorescence similar to staminate inflorescence, but branched to 2 orders, up to 3 m long including 18 – 47 cm peduncle and 14 – 120 cm sterile tip, usually inserted near to sheath apex, but sometimes emerging from sheath mouth; prophyll 18 – 46 × 1.3 – 2.5 cm, similar to staminate prophyll; peduncular bracts absent, rachis bracts 9 – 32 × 0.4 – 2 cm, similar to prophyll; primary branches 6 – 10, to 55 cm long, 21 – 40 cm apart, strongly recurving, with up to 43 rachillae, distal primary branches often consisting of a single rachilla, bracts on primary branch funnel-shaped; rachillae 2.3 – 14 × 0.1 – 0.2 cm, sublinear or irregular; rachilla bracts 0.5 – 1 × 1.6 – 2.5 mm, subdistichous, sometimes with indumentum as on sheath; proximal floral bracteole obscured by distal bracteole, distal floral bracteole 0.8 – 2 × 1.2 – 2 mm, glabrous, scar from sterile staminate flower c. 0.2 mm diam. Pistillate flowers c. 2.7 × 2.2 mm at anthesis; calyx c. 2.2 mm diam., tubular in basal c. 1.9 mm, with 3 lobes to c. 0.6 × 1.3 mm, glabrous; corolla c. 2.3 × 1.6 mm, tubular in basal c. 1.1 mm, with 3 lobes to c. 1.2 × 1.3 mm, glabrous; staminodes 6, c. 1.2 mm long, staminodal ring c. 0.8 mm high; ovary c. 1.3 × 1.3 mm, globose, style c. 0.5 mm long, stigmas c. 0.6 mm long. Sterile staminate flowers similar to staminate flower, but with empty anthers. Fruit globose, 10.5 – 14 × 10 – 11.5 mm including beak 0.5 – 1 mm, with 12 – 18 longitudinal rows of cream-white, shallowly channelled scales with entire, but uneven margins, sarcotesta c. 0.5 mm thick. Seed (sarcotesta removed) 7.5 – 9.5 × 7 – 9 × 6 – 7 mm, globose, with a deep, narrow pit on one side, the surface covered with numerous deep pits and irregular channels; endosperm homogeneous; embryo basal.
    [PW]
    Use
    General cordage for pulling heavy objects and building bridges, split cane for tying house timbers, cane for furniture, cirrus for catching eels, leaves as wrapping for sago and in walls of houses, young shoot edible.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Bismarck Archipelago, Maluku, New Guinea, Queensland, Solomon Is.

    Calamus aruensis Becc. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 28, 2008 Klappa, S. [104], Papua New Guinea K000525999
    Jun 1, 2006 Takeuchi, W. [16808], New Guinea K000208729
    May 20, 2003 Baker, W.J. [WJB 671], Papua New Guinea 62993.000
    Jan 6, 2003 Maturbongs, R.A. [729], Indonesia K000030664
    Jan 1, 2003 Maturbongs, R.A. [695], Indonesia K000030673
    Jan 1, 2003 Maturbongs, R.A. [691], Indonesia K000030675
    Jan 1, 2003 Maturbongs, R.A. [717], Indonesia K000030696
    Jan 1, 2003 Maturbongs, R.A. [734], Indonesia K000030698
    Jan 1, 2003 Gusbager, P. [08], Indonesia K000030686
    Apr 18, 2002 Carr, C.E. [12721], Papua New Guinea K000030462
    Apr 18, 2002 Carr, C.E. [12825], Papua New Guinea K000030461
    Apr 18, 2002 Waterhouse, J.H.L. [Y20], Papua New Guinea K000030491
    Apr 18, 2002 Waterhouse, J.H.L. [B124], Papua New Guinea K000030492
    Apr 18, 2002 Waterhouse, J.H.L. [B124], Papua New Guinea K000525496
    Apr 18, 2002 Waterhouse, J.H.L. [B124], Papua New Guinea K000525497
    Apr 18, 2002 Sands, M.J.S. [1215], Papua New Guinea K000030432
    Apr 18, 2002 Clemens, M.S. [11359], Papua New Guinea K000030485
    Apr 18, 2002 Clemens, M.S. [10460], Papua New Guinea K000030465
    Apr 18, 2002 Clemens, M.S. [11359], Papua New Guinea K000525491
    Apr 18, 2002 Clemens, M.S. [10460], Papua New Guinea K000525494
    Apr 18, 2002 Clemens, M.S. [11359], Papua New Guinea K000525492
    Apr 18, 2002 Clemens, M.S. [10460], Papua New Guinea K000525495
    Apr 18, 2002 Clemens, M.S. [11359], Papua New Guinea K000525493
    Apr 18, 2002 Hoogland, R.D. [3268], Papua New Guinea K000030481
    Apr 18, 2002 Whitmore, T. [BSIP18111], Solomon Is. K000030505
    Apr 18, 2002 Whitmore, T. [BSIP2803], Solomon Is. K000030506
    Apr 18, 2002 Whitmore, T. [BSIP2803], Solomon Is. K000525498
    Apr 18, 2002 Johns, R.J. [6303], Papua New Guinea K000030421
    Apr 18, 2002 Johns, R.J. [6321], Papua New Guinea K000030483
    Apr 18, 2002 Johns, R.J. [6372], Papua New Guinea K000030450
    Apr 18, 2002 Johns, R.J. [A], Papua New Guinea K000030480
    Apr 18, 2002 Johns, R.J. [E], Papua New Guinea K000030484
    Apr 18, 2002 Johns, R.J. [6324], Papua New Guinea K000030447
    Apr 18, 2002 Johns, R.J. [6312], Papua New Guinea K000030445
    Apr 18, 2002 Heatubun, C. [85], Indonesia K000030452
    Apr 18, 2002 Heatubun, C. [260], Indonesia K000030431
    Apr 18, 2002 Heatubun, C. [295], Indonesia K000030446
    Apr 18, 2002 Gray, B. [1517], Australia K000030471
    Apr 18, 2002 Clemens [41720], Papua New Guinea K000030449
    Apr 18, 2002 Clemens [41644], Papua New Guinea K000030458
    Apr 18, 2002 Mogea, J.P. [6246], Indonesia K000112692
    Apr 18, 2002 Dransfield, J. [JD7571], Indonesia K000030487
    Apr 18, 2002 Baker, W.J. [569], Papua New Guinea K000030469
    Apr 18, 2002 Baker, W.J. [606], Papua New Guinea K000030459
    Apr 18, 2002 Baker, W.J. [671], Papua New Guinea K000030436
    Apr 18, 2002 Baker, W.J. [610], Papua New Guinea K000030423
    Apr 18, 2002 Baker, W.J. [584], Papua New Guinea K000030435
    Apr 18, 2002 Baker, W.J. [586], Papua New Guinea K000030425
    Apr 18, 2002 Baker, W.J. [664], Papua New Guinea K000030486
    Apr 18, 2002 Morren [2911], Papua New Guinea K000030442
    Apr 18, 2002 Beccari, O. [s.n.], Indonesia K000030197 Unknown type material
    Apr 18, 2002 Takeuchi, W. [7182], Papua New Guinea K000030426
    Apr 18, 2002 Barrow, S. [122], Indonesia K000112756
    Apr 18, 2002 Barfod, A. [400], Papua New Guinea K000030466
    Apr 18, 2002 Barfod, A. [429], Papua New Guinea K000114292
    Apr 18, 2002 Barfod, A. [503], Papua New Guinea K000114297
    Apr 18, 2002 Maturbongs, R.A. [157], Indonesia K000030437
    Apr 18, 2002 Maturbongs, R.A. [13], Indonesia K000030430
    Apr 18, 2002 Maturbongs, R.A. [289], Indonesia K000030451
    Apr 18, 2002 Maturbongs, R.A. [307], Indonesia K000030433
    Apr 18, 2002 Maturbongs, R.A. [510], Indonesia K000030434
    Apr 18, 2002 Maturbongs, R.A. [278], Indonesia K000030470
    Apr 18, 2002 Maturbongs, R.A. [303], Indonesia K000030429
    Apr 18, 2002 Maturbongs, R.A. [300], Indonesia K000030444
    Apr 18, 2002 Maturbongs, R.A. [540], Indonesia K000030453
    Apr 18, 2002 Maturbongs, R.A. [616], Indonesia K000030463
    Apr 18, 2002 Maturbongs, R.A. [RAM676], Indonesia K000114359
    Apr 18, 2002 Maturbongs, R.A. [RAM653], Indonesia K000114351
    Apr 18, 2002 Maturbongs, R.A. [RAM670], Indonesia K000114350
    Apr 18, 2002 Jitmau, M. [MMJ308], Indonesia K000114433
    Apr 18, 2002 Upessy [3], Indonesia K000030439
    Apr 18, 2002 Zieck, J.F.U. [NGF36550], Papua New Guinea K000030441
    Apr 18, 2002 Zieck, J.F.U. [NGF36512], Papua New Guinea K000030460
    Apr 18, 2002 Zieck, J.F.U. [NGF36168], Papua New Guinea K000030482
    Apr 18, 2002 Zieck, J.F.U. [NGF36213], Papua New Guinea K000030467
    Apr 18, 2002 Zieck, J.F.U. [NGF36214], Papua New Guinea K000030468
    Apr 18, 2002 Poudyal [91], Papua New Guinea K000030420
    Apr 18, 2002 Poudyal [53], Papua New Guinea K000030488
    Apr 18, 2002 Kabaru [64], Papua New Guinea K000030440
    Apr 18, 2002 Kabaru [62], Papua New Guinea K000030428
    Apr 18, 2002 Wally, E. [836], Indonesia K000030418
    Apr 18, 2002 Taurereko [204], Papua New Guinea K000030427
    Apr 18, 2002 Taurereko [213], Papua New Guinea K000030419
    Apr 18, 2002 Taurereko [210], Papua New Guinea K000030424
    Apr 18, 2002 Patma [2], Papua New Guinea K000030443
    Apr 18, 2002 Patma [11], Papua New Guinea K000030456
    Apr 18, 2002 Patma [D], Papua New Guinea K000030454
    Apr 18, 2002 Patma [5], Papua New Guinea K000030457
    Apr 18, 2002 Patma [6], Papua New Guinea K000030455
    Apr 18, 2002 Mente [17], Papua New Guinea K000030438
    Apr 18, 2002 Ibo, M. [95], Indonesia K000030422
    Apr 18, 2002 Ibo, M. [96], Indonesia K000030448
    Apr 18, 2002 Rustiami, H. [53], Indonesia K000113564
    Apr 18, 2002 Mehen, S. [SM23], Indonesia K000114419
    Apr 18, 2002 Hollrung [667], Papua New Guinea K000030196 holotype
    Apr 18, 2002 Qusa, M. [126], Solomon Is. K000030490
    Apr 18, 2002 Qusa, M. [125], Solomon Is. K000030507
    Apr 18, 2002 Qusa, M. [132], Solomon Is. K000030501
    Apr 18, 2002 Qusa, M. [131], Solomon Is. K000030500
    Apr 18, 2002 Qusa, M. [130], Solomon Is. K000030504
    Apr 18, 2002 Qusa, M. [134], Solomon Is. K000030503
    Apr 18, 2002 Qusa, M. [133], Solomon Is. K000030502
    Apr 18, 2002 Walford-Huggins, M. [s.n.], Australia K000030489
    Jan 29, 1979 Sands, M.J.S. [2625], Papua New Guinea K000462989
    Jun 26, 1997 Maturbongs, R.A. [511], Indonesia Calamus hollrungii K000525757
    Waterhouse, J.H.L. [B124], Papua New Guinea Calamus hollrungii K000462322
    Baker, W.J. [WJB 610], Papua New Guinea Calamus hollrungii 59973.000
    Baker, W.J. [WJB 584], Papua New Guinea Calamus hollrungii 59978.000

    First published in Malesia 3: 61 (1886)

    Accepted by

    • Dowe, J.L. (2010). Australian palms: biogeography, ecology and systematics: 1-290. CSIRO Publishing.
    • Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    • W.J. Baker & R.P Bayton & J. Dransfield & R.A Maturbongs, A revision of the Calamus aruensis (Arecaceae) complex in New Guinea and the Pacific. 2003

    Sources

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
    Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0