1. Family: Arecaceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Genus: Calamus L.
      1. Calamus caesius Blume

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Peninsula Thailand to Philippines (Palawan).

    [PW]
    Vernacular
    rotan sega (Mai.), wi letik (Ib.), wi buru (Bid.)
    Distribution
    Widespread throughout the State. Elsewhere throughout Borneo, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, S. Thailand (possibly introduced) and Palawan.
    General Description
    Clustering moderate-sized rattan climbing high into the canopy with stems ultimately reaching 100 m or more, the clump tending to be close and eventually with many aerial stems; stem without sheaths variable, 7-18 mm diam., with sheaths to 25 mm diam., internodes up to 50 cm (even longer in juveniles); cane surface highly polished, the outer surface snapping off in flakes when the cane is bent. Sheaths dull green, armed with sparse pale triangular spines to 15 x 5 mm and sparse grey indumentum, smaller spines sometimes also present; knee prominent; ocrea inconspicuous. Leaf cirrate to 1.5 m including the cirrus to 75 cm; petiole present in juvenile shoots, absent in mature climbing stems; leaflets c. 15 on each side of the rachis, irregularly arranged, usually in alternate pairs, occasionally in 3's, dark green on the upper surface, white beneath, somewhat plicate, often cucullate, the longest to 30 x 5 cm. Inflorescences to 2 m with 7 or more partial inflorescences to 75 cm, the whole inflorescence sometimes ending in a divaricate axis to 20 cm; bracts tubular with sparse brown indumentum; female rachillae c. 10 cm long. Ripe fruit ovoid, c. 15 x 10 mm, with a beak to 2 mm, and covered in 15 - 21 vertical rows of greenish white scales drying pale straw-coloured. Seed ovoid, c. 12 x 7 mm; endosperm deeply ruminate. Seedling leaf forked, the two lobes parallel, 1/4 the length of the whole lamina, dark green on the upper surface, white beneath (Fig. 41).
    [PW]
    Conservation
    Vulnerable.
    Distribution
    A very poorly known species, known only from west Kalimantan.
    General Description
    Habit - Climbing; not branching in the forest canopy; not dying after flowering. Plants dioecious. Leaf-sheath - Tubular for most of its length; flagellum long; knee present; with fewer spines than the rest of the sheath. Sheath surface lacking small horizontal ridges; without hairs or minute spines; green; scales on surface lacking. Leaf sheath with abundant spines; spines persistent; horizontally pointing; of more or less the same size; the larger spines tapered; the longest, excluding those at the mouth of the sheath less than 1cm. Spines straight; in life same colour as the leaf sheath; with smooth margins; the bases downswept and crescent-like. Spines mostly not grouped. Spines around the leaf sheath mouth scarcely different from those on the rest of the sheath. Ocrea - Absent. Leaf-stalk - Absent or usually less than 3cm. Leaves - Cirrate; rachis armed; not hairy. Undersurface of newly emerged leaflets same as upper surface. Scales absent from leaflet surfaces. Leaflets sessile; 1 to 10 on each side of rachis; regularly spaced and parallel; held in a single plane; lanceolate; the leaflet tip acute. 2 to 5cm wide; with none or very few brsitles; the margins with many bristles. Bristles not interlocking; stiff black greater than 0.5mm long. Leaflets scarcely plicate; the veins not radiating; midrib raised and prominent adaxially. Lowermost leaflets not reflexed across the stem. Apical leaflets not or scarcely joined; not less than 4 cm long. Inflorescence - Inflorescence axis erect along the axis, with clawed spines on the primary bracts; not rooting at its tip; much shorter than the leaves; the first bract not enclosing the inflorescences at anthesis. Partial inflorescence present; bracts at the base of the partial inflorescences wholly tubular with a neat mouth or a small open limb, much shorter than the partial inflorescence. Rachilla lacking an enclosing bract; not at all pressed against the subtending bract. Flowers arranged in two rows. Female rachillae not congested; without conspicuously stalked flower cups. Bracts on the rachillae not net-like.
    [PW]
    Use
    Without doubt the best quality cane of its size class, ideal for all types of binding and weaving in the furniture industry and widely used locally in traditional weaving.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Borneo, Malaya, Philippines, Sumatera, Thailand

    Introduced into:

    Samoa

    Calamus caesius Blume appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jul 16, 2007 Baja-Lapis, A. [455], Philippines K000462819
    Jul 1, 2005 Saw Leng Guan [SAN146752], Malaysia K000462788
    Apr 14, 2005 Watanabe, N.M. [NMW61], Indonesia K000209400
    Sep 11, 2000 Mogea, J.P. [7411], Indonesia K000114269
    Oct 1, 1997 Rumutom, M. [290], Malaysia K000113042
    Sep 12, 1997 Lugas [1571], Malaysia K000113027
    Aug 7, 1996 Graefen [SFDP1], Indonesia K000113030
    Dec 15, 1993 Tadong [236], Malaysia K000113014
    Dec 15, 1993 Tadong [291], Malaysia K000113056
    Dec 11, 1993 Van Valkenburg [JVV1111], Indonesia K000113025
    Jan 31, 1992 Stockdale, M.C. [MCS141], Indonesia K000113020
    Jul 25, 1991 Lee [S44593], Malaysia K000113032
    Oct 19, 1990 Kutuh [KP12858], Malaysia K000113041
    Mar 1, 1989 Othman [54383], Malaysia K000113033
    Dec 19, 1985 Anggana [041], Indonesia K000113012
    Dec 2, 1983 Mogea, J.P. [B1714], Indonesia K000113008
    Apr 10, 1981 Dransfield, J. [JD5889], Malaysia K000113009
    Sep 25, 1980 Mogea, J.P. [1860], Indonesia K000113036
    Jun 11, 1980 Dewol [SAN89278], Malaysia K000113007
    Jun 6, 1980 Gibot [SAN89937], Malaysia K000113038
    Jun 6, 1980 Gibot [SAN87988], Malaysia K000113039
    Jul 7, 1976 Martin [S36691], Malaysia K000113024
    Jul 7, 1976 Chai [S37223], Malaysia K000113023
    Jun 11, 1976 Manokaran [FRI18504], Malaysia K000113011
    Aug 17, 1975 Cuadra [A2256], Malaysia K000113019
    Aug 1, 1975 Dransfield, J. [JD4678], Malaysia K000113021
    Aug 1, 1975 Dransfield, J. [JD4667], Malaysia K000113005
    Aug 1, 1975 Dransfield, J. [JD4708], Malaysia K000113010
    Aug 1, 1975 Dransfield, J. [JD4679], Malaysia K000113034
    Aug 1, 1975 Dransfield, J. [JD4715], Malaysia K000113037
    Jul 17, 1975 Cuadra [A2486], Malaysia K000113004
    Jul 15, 1975 Cuadra [A1467], Malaysia K000113022
    Jul 11, 1973 Clemente [4942], Malaysia K000113040
    Jan 1, 1936 Furtado, C.X. [SFN30922], Indonesia K000462242
    Dransfield, J. [JD6514], Malaysia 53424.000
    Mogea, J.P. [4035], Indonesia K000113029
    Dransfield, J. [JD5757], Malaysia K000113031
    Baker, W.J. [547], Malaysia K000462246
    Anonymous [Cytology98-63] K000462447
    Christensen [1307], Malaysia K000113028
    Christensen [186], Malaysia K000113026
    Cultivated [1989-1214] K000462245
    Petrus [SAN90640], Malaysia K000113006
    Furtado, C.X. [SFN30801], Indonesia K000462240
    Furtado, C.X. [SFN30923], Indonesia K000462241
    Tadong [476], Malaysia K000113013
    Andau [108], Malaysia K000113018
    Lugas [582], Malaysia K000113035
    Bunker, W. [OX63], Malaysia K000113015
    Bunker, W. [OX18], Malaysia K000113016
    Bunker, W. [OX3], Malaysia K000113017
    Dec 16, 1996 Giesen, W. [s.n.], Indonesia Calamus tapa K000521380

    First published in Rumphia 3: 57 (1847)

    Accepted by

    • Barfod, A.S. & Dransfield, J. (2013). Flora of Thailand 11(3): 323-498. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
    • Baja-Lapis, A.C. (2010). A Field Guide to Philippine Rattans: 1-214. Asia Life Sciences, Laguna, Philippines.
    • Henderson, A. (2009). Palms of Southern Asia: 1-197. Princeton university press, Princeton and Oxford.
    • Meyer, J.-Y., Lavergne, C. & Hodel, D.R. (2008). Time bombs in gardens: invasive ornamental palms in tropical islands, with emphasis on French Polynesia (Pacific Ocean) and the Mascarenes (Indian Ocean) Palms; Journal of the International Palm Society 52: 23-35.
    • Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    • J. Dransfield, The Rattans of Sarawak. 1992
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Meyer, J.-Y., Lavergne, C. & Hodel, D.R. (2008). Time bombs in gardens: invasive ornamental palms in tropical islands, with emphasis on French Polynesia (Pacific Ocean) and the Mascarenes (Indian Ocean) Palms; Journal of the International Palm Society 52: 23-35.

    Sources

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
    Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0