1. Family: Arecaceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Genus: Calamus L.
      1. Calamus deerratus G.Mann & H.Wendl.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Senegal to Uganda and NW. Angola.

    [FTEA]

    Palmae, John Dransfield. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1994

    Habit
    Clustering, high-climbing, spiny palm to 20 m. or more in length.
    Stem
    Stems branching sympodially at the base, without sheaths 7–30 mm. in diameter; internodes 8–20 cm. long.
    Leaf sheaths
    Leaf-sheaths very varied in armature from almost unarmed to densely spiny, with a marked knee below the petiole; spines black, flattened, up to 3 cm. long, occasionally seriate, interspersed with brown or grey indumentum; sometimes with clusters of upward pointing spines around the leaf-sheath mouth; ocrea present and usually conspicuous, dry, papyraceous, tongue-shaped, then splitting and becoming bilobed, to 12 cm. long, usually less, armed with spines, often paler and more bristle-like than those on the leaf-sheath or rarely unarmed.
    Leaves
    Leaves ecirrate, to 1.75 m. long, usually less, with petiole to 20 cm.; petiole rounded abaxially, channelled adaxially, ± 5 mm. broad, variously armed with large black spines to 3 cm. long and small recurved black hooks; rachis triangular in section distally; leaflets ± concolorous, numerous, up to 30 on each side of the rachis, subequidistant to equidistant below, in most populations grouped in 3’s to 5’s distally, up to 35 cm. long by 2 cm. wide, widest about 1/3 distance from insertion, tapering to a long tip, the margins and main vein bristly throughout, somewhat plicate with up to 9 prominent secondary nerves, and prominent sinuous lateral veins.
    Tendrils
    Flagellum to 2 m. long by 4 mm. wide at the base, decreasing very gradually above, armed with small recurved hooks.
    Inflorescences
    Male and ♀ inflorescences similar, to 2 m. long, with 1–4 partial inflorescences and a long terminal sterile flagellum; axis and bracts armed throughout with reflexed, solitary or grouped black spines; bracts tightly sheathing, up to 70 cm. long with an expanded, somewhat papyraceous limb ± 5 cm. long; partial inflorescences to 40 cm. long, with up to 15 or more rachillae on each side, subtended by bracts ± 2 cm. long (1 cm. exposed), with mouths ± 7 mm. wide and with a short triangular limb to 4 mm.; rachillae up to 7 cm. long, usually arcuate, arranged distichously; bracts distichous, closely approximate, dull brown in colour, somewhat ciliate-hairy around the mouth.
    Male
    Sterile ♂ flower very similar to fertile ♂ but slightly shorter and narrower. Male flowers solitary, distichous, with minute involucre to 1 mm. long; calyx 4 mm. long, tubular for 3/4 of its length, with 3 short, triangular, striate lobes; corolla-lobes to 7 mm. long by 2 mm. wide, joined at the base for ± 1 mm., widely diverging at anthesis; stamens to 4 mm. long, minutely epipetalous, with filaments to 3 mm. long, anthers ± 3 mm. long, medifixed; pollen yellow.
    Flowers
    Female flower with calyx tubular at first and then splitting as the ovary increases in size, lobes ± 3 mm. long; corolla-lobes ± 5 × 2 mm., with 6 minutely epipetalous flattened staminodes; ovary ± 5 mm. long by 2.5 mm. wide, tipped by 3 stigmas ± 1 mm. long, markedly recurved at anthesis. Sterile ♂ flower very similar to fertile ♂ but slightly shorter and narrower. Male flowers solitary, distichous, with minute involucre to 1 mm. long; calyx 4 mm. long, tubular for 3/4 of its length, with 3 short, triangular, striate lobes; corolla-lobes to 7 mm. long by 2 mm. wide, joined at the base for ± 1 mm., widely diverging at anthesis; stamens to 4 mm. long, minutely epipetalous, with filaments to 3 mm. long, anthers ± 3 mm. long, medifixed; pollen yellow.
    Female
    Female flower with calyx tubular at first and then splitting as the ovary increases in size, lobes ± 3 mm. long; corolla-lobes ± 5 × 2 mm., with 6 minutely epipetalous flattened staminodes; ovary ± 5 mm. long by 2.5 mm. wide, tipped by 3 stigmas ± 1 mm. long, markedly recurved at anthesis.
    Fruits
    Fruit to 1.5 cm., by 1 cm. with a short beak to 2 mm. tipped by the stylar remains, with (15–17–18(–20) vertical rows of dull, pale brown scales, edged with darker brown.
    Seeds
    Seed somewhat flattened laterally, ± 9 × 8 × 5 mm., with sarcotesta ± 1 mm. thick when dry, somewhat grooved, with homogeneous endosperm and basal embryo.
    Figures
    Fig. 8.
    Habitat
    Riverine forest and swamp forest in humid areas; 1000–1500 m. in E. Africa, at much lower altitudes in W. Africa
    Distribution
    U2 U4 wide ranging from West Africa and the Congo basin to Sudan
    [PW]
    General Description
    Clustered, slender to moderate palm climbing to 20 m, often branching sympodially at the base. Stem without sheaths, 1.0-2.8 cm in diameter, with, 1.2-3.5 cm; internodes 8-20 cm long, more commonly 15-20 cm. Leaf-sheaths varied in armature from almost unarmed to densely spiny, with a distinct horizontal, sometimes folded, knee below the petiole; spines dark brown or black, triangular, flattened at base, up to 3 cm long, clusters of upward pointing spines often concentrated around the leaf-sheath mouth to form a conspicuous cleft; mature sheaths with brown or grey indumentum; ocrea to up 12 cm long, usually 8-10 cm, dry, papyraceous, tongue-shaped, often longitudinally splitting and reflexed, becoming unrecognisable, armed on the margins with spines more pale and bristle-like than those on the leaf-sheath, rarely unarmed. Leaves ecirrate, up to 1.75m long, usually 1.2-1.5m; petiole to 20 cm long, rounded abaxially, concave adaxially, ± 5 mm broad, variously armed with large black spines to 3 cm long and small recurved black thorns; rachis triangular in section distally armed as the petiole, spines becoming sparse distally; leaflets up to 30 on each side of the rachis, sub-equidistant to equidistant proximally, grouped in 3s to 6s distally, linear-lanceolate, finely acuminate to apiculate at apex, bluntly compact at the base, up to 35 cm long by 2 cm broad at the widest point, + concolorous with slightly darker green upper surface, leaflet margins, main vein and secondary nerves bristly throughout. Flagellum up to 3.5m long by 4 mm wide at the base, decreasing very gradually above, armed with small recurved thorns. Male and female inflorescences similar, up to 3.5m long, with 1-4 partial inflorescences and a long terminal sterile flagellum; axis and bracts armed throughout with reflexed, solitary or grouped black prickle-like spines; bracts tightly sheathing, up to 70 cm long with an expanded, papyraceous limb ± 5 cm long; partial inflorescences to 40 cm long, with up to 15 or more rachillae on each side, subtended by bracts + 2 cm long (1 cm. exposed), with mouths + 7 mm wide and with a short triangular limb to 4 mm; rachillae up to 7 cm long, arcuate, arranged distichously; bracts distichous, dull brown in colour, ciliate-hairy around the mouth. Male flowers solitary, distichous, with a minute involucre to 1 mm long; calyx 4 mm long, tubular for + 3 mm, with 3 short, triangular, striate lobes; corolla-lobes to 7 mm long × 2 mm wide, fused at the base for + 1 mm, widely diverging at anthesis; stamens to 4 mm long, minutely epipetalous, with filaments up to 3 mm long, anthers + 3 mm. long, medifixed; pollen yellow. Sterile male flower very similar to fertile male but slightly shorter and narrower. Female flower with calyx tubular at first and then splitting as ovary increases in size, lobes + 3 mm long; corolla-lobes + 5 × 2 mm, with 6 minutely epipetalous flattened staminodes; ovary ± 5 mm long by 2.5 mm wide, tipped by 3 stigmas + 1 mm long, markedly recurved at anthesis. Fruit at maturity to 1.5 cm, × 1 cm with a short beak up to 2 mm tipped by remains of the style, with 17-20 vertical rows of scales. Seed flattened laterally, + 9 × 8 × 5 mm, with sarcotesta + 1 mm thick when dry; endosperm homogeneous, embryo basal. Germination adjacent-ligular; eophyll pinnate
    Biology
    Calamus deërratus has a strong preference for swamp and riverine forest, (Ainslie 1926, Foggie 1941, Ahn 1961) and is rather less common in areas with high rainfall (Hall & Swaine 1981). As such, this species is relatively rare in the Guineo-Congolian forest of Cameroon and Gabon (Richards 1963, Letouzey 1978, Sunderland 2007). This species is more common in drier gallery forest found in the transition zones between Sudanian savanna woodland to the north of the Guineo-Congolian forest formation, and Zambezian savanna woodland to the south. C. deërratus occurs in lowland forest areas in west and central Africa at altitudes <500m and in the higher altitude regions of east Africa >1500m. This species is usually found in forest under a canopy, but also occurs in open areas where it often forms dense thickets.
    Conservation
    Least concern (LC).
    Distribution
    Calamus deërratus is the most widely distributed of the rattans of Africa and is distributed across the humid forest zone of Africa; from the Gambia and Casamance in Senegal, southwards to northern Angola and Zambia and eastwards to southern Sudan and Uganda.
    [FWTA]

    Palmae, T. A. Russell. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:1. 1968

    Habit
    A slender climber with prickly stems, scrambling to tops of trees
    Ecology
    In wet forest
    Note
    The male and fruiting spadices being borne on different plants.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Burkina, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre

    Calamus deerratus G.Mann & H.Wendl. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jun 22, 2006 Cheek, M. [11655], Cameroon K000209120
    May 26, 1999 Sunderland, T.C.H. [2262], Ghana K000521244
    Nov 16, 1997 Sunderland, T.C.H. [1754], Cameroon 64232.000
    Nov 16, 1997 Sunderland, T.C.H. [1754], Cameroon K000521260
    Sep 9, 1997 Sunderland, T.C.H. [1864], Cameroon K000521259
    Aug 16, 1984 Hepper [8177], Côte d'Ivoire K000521247
    Aug 16, 1984 Hepper [8041], Côte d'Ivoire K000521237
    Feb 2, 1984 Lowe [4353], Nigeria K000521246
    Aug 23, 1982 Starin [136], Gambia K000521249
    Aug 4, 1980 Starin [28], Gambia K000521248
    Mar 26, 1980 Chapman [5010], Nigeria K000521235
    Mar 26, 1980 Chapman [5423], Nigeria K000521236
    Jun 16, 1975 Klaine [3246], Gabon K000521252
    Jun 16, 1975 Dummer [2650], Uganda K000522439
    Jan 28, 1975 Andrews [1291], Sudan K000521266
    Keay, R.W.J. [FHI28091], Nigeria K000521222
    Keay, R.W.J. [FHI28091], Nigeria K000521223
    Keay, R.W.J. [FHI28091], Nigeria K000521224
    Keay, R.W.J. [FHI28091], Nigeria K000521225
    Myers, J.G. [11334], Sudan K000521261
    Myers, J.G. [6757], Sudan K000521264
    Myers, J.G. [11334], Sudan K000521262
    Myers, J.G. [6757], Sudan K000521265
    Myers, J.G. [11334], Sudan K000521263
    Scott Elliot, G.F. [5121], Sierra Leone K000522429
    Scott Elliot, G.F. [4738], Sierra Leone K000522435
    Tomlinson [s.n.], Ghana K000521216
    Tomlinson [s.n.], Ghana K000521217
    Tomlinson [s.n.], Ghana K000521218
    Mann, G. [895], Sierra Leone K000462872
    Mann, G. [895], Sierra Leone K000462873 isotype
    Mann, G. [895], Sierra Leone K000462874
    Mann, G. [2147], Cameroon K000462875
    Mann, G. [2147], Cameroon K000462876
    Mann, G. [2147], Cameroon K000462877
    Mann, G. [2147], Cameroon K000462878
    Mann, G. [2147], Cameroon K000462879
    Mann, G. [895], Sierra Leone K000521238 Unknown type material
    Schweinfurth, G. [2860] K000462871 holotype
    Vongbaluma, I. [s.n.], Zambia 29047.738
    Johnson [242], Ghana K000462880 holotype
    Johnson [242], Ghana K000522426
    Hall [2846], Ghana K000521226
    Hall [2846], Ghana K000521227
    Hall [2846], Ghana K000521228
    Hall [2846], Ghana K000521251
    Thomas [2753], Sierra Leone K000521211
    Thomas [2753], Sierra Leone K000521212
    Dransfield, J. [7000], Cameroon K000521254
    Dransfield, J. [6999], Cameroon K000521258
    Linder [1116], Liberia K000521219
    Linder [1078], Liberia K000521203
    Linder [1226], Liberia K000521204
    Linder [1116], Liberia K000521220
    Chipp [127], Ghana K000521230
    Chipp [127], Ghana K000521231
    Chipp [127], Ghana K000521232
    Fay [4381], Central African Republic K000521255
    Barter [110], Nigeria K000522436
    Gledhill [923], Nigeria K000521243
    Whyte [s.n.], Liberia K000521221
    Leonard [832] K000521267
    Meijer [15220], Cameroon K000521257
    Vigne [1868], Ghana K000521213
    Vigne [1868], Ghana K000521214
    Vigne [1868], Ghana K000521215
    Leeuwenberg [2882], Côte d'Ivoire K000521198
    Leeuwenberg [2882], Côte d'Ivoire K000521199
    Leeuwenberg [2882], Côte d'Ivoire K000521200
    Unwin [223], Nigeria K000522430
    Ingram [s.n.], Gambia K000522434
    Deighton, J.C. [2592], Sierra Leone K000522427
    Deighton, J.C. [3], Nigeria K000522432
    Deighton, J.C. [4], Nigeria K000522431
    Deighton, J.C. [2592a], Sierra Leone K000522437
    Deighton, J.C. [1847], Sierra Leone K000521209
    Deighton, J.C. [2592], Sierra Leone K000522428
    Deighton, J.C. [3], Nigeria K000522433
    Deighton, J.C. [1847], Sierra Leone K000521210
    Small [455], Sierra Leone K000521205
    Small [455], Sierra Leone K000521206
    Small [455], Sierra Leone K000521207
    Small [455], Sierra Leone K000521208
    Cummins [128], Ghana K000521229
    Oldeman [589], Côte d'Ivoire K000521201
    Oldeman [589], Côte d'Ivoire K000521202
    Louis [15541], Congo K000521256
    Chillou [1905], Guinea K000525530
    Tuley [846], Nigeria K000521268
    Tuley [846], Nigeria K000521269
    Vongkaluang, I. [s.n.], Zambia K000462258
    Ayewoh [3854], Nigeria K000521250
    Imp. Inst. Nigeria [347], Nigeria K000521242
    Ory [216], Guinea K000525531
    Dunstan [s.n.], Nigeria K000521233
    Dunstan [s.n.], Nigeria K000521234
    Mistrav [9548], Cameroon K000521253
    Holman-Bentley [s.n.] K000462293
    Tsiforkor, B. [s.n.], Ghana K000114464
    Allison, P.A. [FHI6994], Nigeria K000521239
    Allison, P.A. [FHI6994], Nigeria K000521240
    Allison, P.A. [FHI6994], Nigeria K000521241
    Aufsess, E. [424], Benin K000521245
    Heudelot [372], Senegal Calamus heudelotii K000462881 isotype

    First published in Trans. Linn. Soc. London 24: 429 (1864)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Timberlake, J.R. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2010). Flora Zambesiaca 13(2): 1-83. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 30: 1-307.
    • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Harris, D.J. (2002). The vascular plants of the Dzanga-Sangha Reserve, Central African Republic: 1-274. National Botanic Garden (Belgium), Meise.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 3: 1-89. ORSTOM, Bangui.

    Literature

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    • T.C.H Sunderland, A taxonomic revision of the rattans of Africa (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) in Phytotaxa 51. 2012
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Berhaut, Fl. Sén. 211.
    • Chev. Bot. 673
    • F.T.A. 8: 108
    • in Trans. Linn. Soc. 24: 429, t. 41 (1864)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Sunderland, T.C.H. (2012). A taxonomic revision of the rattans of Africa (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) Phytotaxa 51: 1-76.
    • Timberlake, J.R. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2010). Flora Zambesiaca 13(2): 1-83. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • T.A. Russell in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3: 166 (1968).
    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Sudan 3: 302 (1956).
    • Becc. in Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. Calc. 11 (1): 151 (1908).
    • C.H. Wright in Flora of Tropical Africa 8: 108 (1901).
    • G. Mann & H. Wendl. in Trans. Linn. Soc. 24: 429, t. 41 (1864).

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
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