1. Family: Arecaceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Genus: Calamus L.
      1. Calamus erectus Roxb.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Nepal to China (Yunnan) and N. Indo-China.

    [PW]
    General Description
    A cluster forming non-scandent rattan. Stem with leafsheath 3.5-4 cm in diameter; exposed part of the stem green and smooth; intemodes 10-12 cm long. Leaves ecirrate, 3 - 5 m long; leafsheath without flagellum, armed with black, flattened spines; ocrea conspicuously auriculate; petiole 1.5 m long, subterete, covered with irregular, whorled spines; leaflets linear-ensiform, equidistant, green on both sides; rachis armed below with irregular to whorled straight spines. Inflorescence 1 m long, compact, non-flagelliform; primary bract elongate, tubular, lacerate in upper part; peduncle strongly armed with black, flattened comb-like spines; male rachillae slender, sterile basal part of rachillae enclosed within the basal bracts; male flowers bifarious, narrowly oblong, obscurely 3-angled at base; calyx campanulate, 3-lobed, lobes apiculate, corolla with 3 distinct petals. In female inflorescence rachillae without sterile basal part. Involucrophorumnon-pedicelliform. Fruit ellipsoid, 3 cm x 2 cm, with distinct conical beak; seed oblong to ovoid, terete in cross section; endosperm ruminate; embryo basal.
    Distribution
    INDIA (Sikkim, Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur, West Bengal), BANGLADESH, BURMA.
    Biology
    Grows in the lower hill forests especially on the drier slopes. Frequent in the Tista and Rangit valley of Sikkim and West Bengal.
    [PW]
    Use
    Due to shorter internodes, the cane is not useful for making furniture. The Miri tribe of Assam plains made their thatched nuts on bamboo pillars raised about 1 - 1.5 m above the ground level to protect them from flood and wild animals. For making the huts they use split Dendrocalamus bamboo and strong canes of Calamus erectus, leaves are used as thatch. Stems and leaves of Calamus erectus are also used by them for making poultry houses. In Sylhet, Bangladesh, people chew the seeds of Calamus erectus in place of betal nuts (Areca catechu).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Assam, Bangladesh, China South-Central, East Himalaya, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand

    Calamus erectus Roxb. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Mar 2, 2006 Barfod, A. [703], Thailand K000526371
    Jan 1, 2000 Kerr, A.F.G. [4947], Thailand K000525652
    Jan 1, 2000 Kerr, A.F.G. [2433], Thailand K000525656
    Jan 1, 2000 Kerr, A.F.G. [10358], Thailand K000525654
    Jan 1, 2000 Kerr, A.F.G. [2433A], Thailand K000525655
    Jan 1, 2000 Vongkaluang, I. [170], Thailand K000525653
    Jul 4, 1997 Gibbons, M. [s.n.E31], India K000521839
    Feb 1, 1992 Thompson [s.n.E25], India K000521834
    Feb 1, 1992 Hooker [s.n.E22], India K000521831
    Feb 1, 1992 Hooker [s.n.E23], India K000521835
    Feb 1, 1992 unknown [s.n.E21], India K000521836
    Feb 1, 1992 Gamble [2972A], India K000521817
    Feb 1, 1992 Gamble [676] K000521832
    Feb 1, 1992 Gamble [2972A], India K000521818
    Feb 1, 1992 Gamble [676] K000521833
    Feb 7, 1983 Grierson [3413], Bhutan K000521837
    Feb 7, 1983 Grierson [3657], Bhutan K000521838
    Thompson [s.n.E19], India K000521829
    Thompson [s.n.E19], India K000521830
    Griffith [s.n.E47] K000521819
    Griffith [s.n.E47] K000521820
    Griffith [6385], India K000521827
    Hooker [308?], India K000522413
    Anderson [s.n.E20], China K000521816
    Henderson, A. [3160], Myanmar K000208546
    Henderson, A. [3137], Myanmar K000208566
    Baker, W.J. [814], India K000114532
    Watt, G. [5122], India K000522414
    Watt, G. [5135], India K000522415
    Parry, N.E. [828], India K000521821
    Parry, N.E. [828], India K000521822
    Parry, N.E. [828], India K000521823
    Hooker and Thompson [s.n.E15], India K000521826
    Hooker and Thompson [s.n.E16], India K000521828
    Hooker and Thompson [s.n.E17], Bangladesh K000521824
    Hooker and Thompson [s.n.E17], Bangladesh K000521825
    Chen San-yang [18942b], China K000521753
    Chen San-yang [18942a], China K000521752

    First published in Fl. Ind. ed. 1832, 3: 774 (1832)

    Accepted by

    • Peters, C.M. & Henderson, A. (2014). Systematics, ecology and management of Rattans in Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam: 1-222. Agricultural Printing House.
    • Barfod, A.S. & Dransfield, J. (2013). Flora of Thailand 11(3): 323-498. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2010). Flora of China 23: 1-515. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Henderson, A. (2009). Palms of Southern Asia: 1-197. Princeton university press, Princeton and Oxford.
    • Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    • S.K. Basu, Rattans (canes) in India. A Monographic Revision. 1992
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2010). Flora of China 23: 1-515. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.

    Sources

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
    Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0