1. Family: Arecaceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Genus: Calamus L.
      1. Calamus erioacanthus Becc.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is W. Malesia.

    [PW]
    General Description
    Clustering rattan climbing to 10 m or more; stem without sheaths 7-10 mm diam., with sheaths to 18 mm diam., internodes c. 15 cm long. Sheaths dark green, armed with scattered triangular black spines to 10 mm long with decurrent bases and long hairy margins, or spines more crowded and of varying size, low ridges sometimes present between the spines; knee well developed; ocrea 5-8 cm, membranous at first, becoming fibrous and net-like, conspicuous in young sheaths. Vestigial flagellum to 10 cm, usually less. Leaf to 1.5 m including the cirrus to 75 cm; petiole very short in mature stems, 2-6 cm long; leaflets c. 12 on each side of the rachis, irregularly arranged in groups of 2 - 4, shiny dark green, broad lanceolate, the longest 25-35x4.5-5.5 cm, ± unarmed, transverse veinlets conspicuous. Inflorescences inconspicuous, appearing dead even at anthesis, with up to 7 partial inflorescences; base of prophyll sparsely to very densely armed with hairy-margined spines; primary and secondary bracts covered in brown scales, irregularly tattering; partial inflorescences to 15 cm, often less, partly obscured by the tattering bracts; male and female rachillae very short, usually crowded. Mature fruit ± oblate, 15 x 17 mm, briefly beaked, covered in c. 21 vertical rows of pale straw-coloured scales, irregularly blotched and tinged with reddish-brown. Seed c. 10 mm diam.; endosperm deeply ruminate. Seedling leaf not known (Fig. 49).
    Distribution
    Locally common in the 1st and 2nd Divisions. Not known elsewhere. Endemic.
    Vernacular
    wi buluh (Ib.)
    [PW]
    General Description
    Clustering rattan climbing to 10 m tall. Stem without sheaths to 1 cm in diameter, with sheaths to 2.5 cm in diameter. Internodes to 20 cm. Sheaths dull green armed with scattered triangular concave hairy-edged spines 3 by 2 mm to 18 by 7 mm and abundant sinuous lateral rough ridges to 0.2 mm high; grey indumentum abundant between the spines. Knee conspicuous armed as the leaf sheath. Vestigial flagellum to 15 cm long present on most sheaths. Ocrea inconspicuous. Leaf cirrate to 1.75 m long including the cirrus to 1 m long; petiole short, not usually more than 5 cm long; cirrus armed with scattered rather than distinctly grouped reflexed spines. Leaflets about 25 on each side of the rachis, grouped in 5 groups of up to 8 leaflets but arranged regularly within each group, the leaflets to 35 cm long by 2.5 cm wide, plicate ± unarmed above rather densely armed with short black bristles on 5-6 nerves. Inflorescence male and female superficially similar, to 1 m long with 3-4 partial inflorescences, in the female to 15 cm long, in the male to 60 cm long; all bracts loosely tubular and tattering, giving the inflorescence a dead appearance. Male rachillae enclosed within bracts about 1.5 cm long, female rachillae recurved to about 5 cm long. Young fruit with scales in 23 vertical rows. No other parts known.
    Distribution
    Johore: Panti East Forest Reserve. Sumatra.
    [PW]
    Distribution
    Johore; endemic.
    General Description
    Clustering, slender rattan climbing to 25 m tall, forming close clumps. Stem without sheaths 7 mm in diameter, with sheaths 1.5 cm; internodes 10-20 cm long Sheaths dull mid-green, armed rather densely with horizontal flat hairy-margined black spines to 2 cm long by 5 mm wide; brown indumentum scattered between spines. Vestigial flagellum to 8 cm long present Knee prominent. Ocrea rather large, to 2 cm long, densely dark in-dumentose quickly tattering. Leaf cirrate to 1.75 m long including the cirrus to 80 cm; petiole absent; leaflets about 15 on each side of the rachis, grouped in 4 groups of 2-5 leaflets, regularly arranged within the groups; groups subopposite; largest leaflet to about 30 cm long by 2.7 cm wide; upper leaflet surface unarmed, lower surface armed with short brown bristles along midrib, margins armed with black bristles. Male inflorescence to 1 m in length with first bract to 25 cm long armed with scattered and grouped triangular spines to 4 x 3 mm; allbracts tubular at the base, but conspicuously tattering in the upper pan; lowermost partial inflorescence to about 30 cm long all with tattering bracts; rachillae very short, rarely more than 1 cm in length. Fruit not known. Seedling not known.
    [PW]
    General Description
    Clustering slender rattan climbing to 20 m tall; stem without sheaths c. 8 mm diam., with sheaths c. 12 mm diam., internodes to 18 cm long. Sheaths dull green or grey-green, armed with scattered triangular spines to 10 × 5 mm with conspicuous shaggy-hairy margins, smaller spines and also sometimes with ridges bearing minute spinules, deciduous indumentum present between the spines; knee conspicuous; ocrea scarcely developed. Vestigial flagellum present, to c. 10 cm. Leaf cirrate to 2 m long including petiole to 5 cm and cirrus to 1 m; leaflets c. 30 on each side of the rachis, regularly arranged near the base, somewhat grouped near the tip, the longest to 33 × 1.6 cm, linear, conspicuously bristly on the upper surface, transverse veinlets conspicuous. Young shoots bearing leaves with irregularly grouped leaflets. Inflorescences to 1 m long, usually less, the whole appearing dead; bracts throughout the inflorescence splitting, expanding, tattering, dark brown; male rachillae congested, c. 15 × 2 mm, mostly hidden by subtending bracts; female rachillae curved, c. 40 × 4 mm. Fruit not known. (Fig. 40).
    Distribution
    Known with certainty only from the 1st Division of Sarawak. The collections from Brunei are similar to a taxon found in the Mulu National Park in Sarawak which has tentatively been identified asC. semoi (see Dransfield 1992). In Brunei this rattan is confined to higher elevations in the Temburong Basin.
    Vernacular
    Wi tut (Ib.)
    [PW]
    General Description
    Slender clustering rattan climbing to 20 m; stem without sheaths to 8 mm, with to 17 mm diam.; internodes 10 - 13 cm. Leaf sheaths dark green, covered in caducous scaly indumentum and armed with scattered large triangular spines to 10 x 10 m with black hairy margins and hollowed-out bases, interspersed with much smaller spines. Knee conspicuous. Ocrea membranous, inconspicuous to c 1 mm. Vestigial flagellum present to 20 cm armed with horizontal triangular spines. Leaf cirrate to 2.2 m, including petiole to 20 cm and cirrus to c 1 m; cirrus armed with scattered rather than grouped spines; leaflets linear to c 32 on each side of the rachis arranged in 4 - 6 rather distant groups, but regularly arranged within the groups, to 32 x 1.3 cm, somewhat plicate, very sparsely armed on the upper surface with 2 - 4 rows of scattered bristles, densely and conspicuously armed with short brown bristles all over the under-surface. Male inflorescence only known, to c 65 cm, curved; bracts on the axis dark brown, spiny and splitting longitudinally producing an untidy mass of strips; first order branches to 25 cm; 2nd order branches to 7 cm, strongly reflexed rachillae to 13 x 2 mm bearing close distichous flower pits. Other parts unknown. (Fig. 55)
    Distribution
    Known only from two collections, one from the slopes of Bt. Masasau, near Pamol, and the other in Sapa Payau F.R. on the main road between Sandakan and Telupid. Endemic.
    [PW]
    Vernacular
    wi tap ah (Ib.), wi lembah (Ib.)
    General Description
    Clustering moderate rattan with stems climbing to 20 m tall; stem without sheaths to 12 mm diam., with to 20 mm diam., internodes to 20 cm long. Sheaths green or greyish green, armed with rather sparse, large, scattered triangular spines to 20 x 5 mm, with conspicuous hairy margins, brown indumentum also present between the spines; knee conspicuous; ocrea poorly developed. Vestigial flagellum present, to 10 cm. Leaf to 2.4 m long including the petiole to 40 cm and cirrus to 1.2 m long; leaflets 4- c. 10 on each side of the rachis, irregularly grouped, broad lanceolate, plicate, armed with bristles only at the tips, the longest leaflets to 40 x 7 cm. Inflorescences to 90 cm long with 4-5 partial inflorescences, the whole appearing dead; bracts throughout the inflorescence splitting, expanding, tattering, dull pale or dark brown; male rachillae numerous, crowded, mostly partially hidden among the bracts, to c. 12 x 1.5 mm, ± curved; female rachillae to 25 x 4 mm, straight or curved. Mature fruit relatively large, rounded, c. 22 mm diam., shortly beaked and covered in c. 21 vertical rows of red brown scales. Seed with flesh removed ± oblate, 9 x 13 mm; sarcotesta sweet and juicy; endosperm deeply ruminate. Seedling leaf not known (Fig. 51).
    Distribution
    Known from a few collections from the 1st and 4th Divisions. Elsewhere in Kalimantan. Endemic to Borneo.
    [PW]
    General Description
    Slender clustering rattan climbing to c 10 m; stems without sheaths c 8 mm diam., with to 15 mm diam.; internodes to 20 cm. Sheaths pale green with scattered brown scales and armed with scattered large triangular dark brown spines to 10 x 5 mm with swollen yellowish bases and black hairy margins, and much smaller spines to 3 mm scattered in between or in short groups. Knee conspicuous. Ocrea short, fringed with stiff blackish hairs. Vestigial flagellum present to 5 cm. Leaf to 1.25 m including cirrus to 70 cm and very short petiole to 5 cm; cirrus armed with scattered not grouped spines; leaflets c 10 on each side of the rachis, irregularly arranged in four groups of 2 or 3; longest leaflets to 40 x 3.5 cm, plicate, unarmed except for a few black bristles at the tip. Male and female inflorescences superficially similar, to 50 cm, with a short peduncle to 11 cm; main bracts to 15 cm, dull dirty brown covered in brown scales and scattered spines, deeply split and tattering giving the whole inflorescence a dead appearance; male and female rachillae to c 4 cm. Ripe fruit large, wider than high, to 18 x 23 mm, tipped with a cylindrical beak to 1.5 x 1.5 mm and covered in 24 - 26 vertical rows of deep reddish brown scales; seed ± depressed globose to 12 x 17 mm; endosperm deeply ruminate. Seedling leaf unknown. (Fig. 54)
    Distribution
    Only known from lower montane forest on Kinabalu; endemic.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Borneo, Malaya, Sumatera

    Calamus erioacanthus Becc. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Sep 11, 2000 Mogea, J.P. [7426], Indonesia K000114266
    Feb 7, 1995 Baker, W.J. [511], Malaysia K000521724
    May 9, 1994 Van Valkenburg [JVV1195], Indonesia K000113290
    Aug 24, 1982 Dransfield, J. [JD5910], Malaysia K000113292
    Aug 1, 1975 Dransfield, J. [JD4741], Malaysia K000113294
    Dransfield, J. [5863], Borneo 45948.000
    Dransfield, J. [JD5863], Malaysia K000113291
    Dransfield, J. [JD5989], Malaysia K000113293
    Dransfield, J. [JD6110], Malaysia K000113295
    Dransfield, J. [JD5880], Malaysia K000113296
    Dransfield, J. [JD5884], Malaysia K000113297
    Dransfield, J. [JD 5084], Peninsular Malaysia Calamus endauensis K000207751 isotype
    Apr 19, 2002 Lai, S.T. [75399], Malaysia Calamus semoi K000030650
    Jan 31, 1992 Stockdale, M.C. [MCS97], Indonesia Calamus semoi K000462193
    Feb 1, 1989 Awa [S51198], Malaysia Calamus semoi K000462192
    Jul 9, 1986 Saigol [13], Malaysia Calamus semoi K000462187
    Aug 24, 1982 Dransfield, J. [JD6059], Malaysia Calamus semoi K000462185
    Aug 24, 1982 Dransfield, J. [JD6055], Malaysia Calamus semoi K000462186
    Aug 24, 1982 Dransfield, J. [JD6058], Malaysia Calamus semoi K000462189
    Feb 5, 1979 Dransfield, J. [JD5292], Malaysia Calamus semoi K000462191
    Feb 5, 1979 Dransfield, J. [JD5281], Malaysia Calamus semoi K000462190
    Feb 5, 1979 Dransfield, J. [JD5321], Malaysia Calamus semoi K000462188
    Dransfield, J. [7117], Brunei Calamus semoi K000114124
    Wong, K.M. [1407], Brunei Calamus semoi K000114125
    Feb 2, 1981 Dransfield, J. [JD5815], Malaysia Calamus hepburnii K000113379
    Dransfield, J. [JD5745], Sabah Calamus hepburnii K000113378 holotype
    Sep 12, 2000 Mogea, J.P. [7400], Indonesia Calamus pseudoulur K000114255
    Dec 1, 1991 Van Valkenburg [JVV1112], Indonesia Calamus pseudoulur K000521586
    Aug 24, 1982 Dransfield, J. [JD6088], Malaysia Calamus pseudoulur K000521588
    Aug 24, 1982 Dransfield, J. [JD6130], Malaysia Calamus pseudoulur K000525579
    Nov 25, 1980 Chin [3014], Malaysia Calamus pseudoulur K000521585
    Apr 5, 1977 Dransfield, J. [JD4665], Malaysia Calamus pseudoulur K000521587
    Aug 13, 1974 Dransfield, J. [JD4425], Indonesia Calamus pseudoulur K000521589
    Aug 13, 1974 Dransfield, J. [JD4422], Indonesia Calamus pseudoulur K000521584
    Stockdale, M. [210], Indonesia Calamus pseudoulur K000521582
    Stockdale, M. [492], Indonesia Calamus pseudoulur K000521583
    Feb 2, 1981 Dransfield, J. [JD5841], Malaysia Calamus mesilauensis K000521192
    Oct 29, 1969 Chew [RSNB4125], Malaysia Calamus mesilauensis K000113846
    Chew [1957], Malaysia Calamus mesilauensis K000521186
    Chew [RSNB7069], Malaysia Calamus mesilauensis K000521191
    Chew [1817], Malaysia Calamus mesilauensis K000521189
    Chew [1957], Malaysia Calamus mesilauensis K000521187
    Chew [1957], Malaysia Calamus mesilauensis K000521188
    Dransfield, J. [JD5696], Malaysia Calamus mesilauensis K000521185
    Dransfield, J. [JD5557], Malaysia Calamus mesilauensis K000113844
    Dransfield, J. [JD5698], Malaysia Calamus mesilauensis K000521190
    Dransfield, J. [JD 5556], Sabah Calamus mesilauensis K000113845 holotype

    First published in For. Borneo: 610 (1902)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    • J. Dransfield, The Rattans of Sarawak. 1992

    Sources

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
    Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0