1. Family: Arecaceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Genus: Calamus L.
      1. Calamus fertilis Becc.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is New Guinea.

    [PW]
    Biology
    In lowland forest, usually on river banks or in swamp forest at altitudes up to 450 m above sea level.
    Distribution
    Apparently widespread in lowland New Guinea but not often collected. Also recorded from Manus Island.
    General Description
    Very robust, solitary or clustering rattan climbing to 30 m. Stem with sheaths 31 - 45 mm diam., without sheaths to 18 - 32 mm diam.; internodes 13 - 32 cm. Leafecirrate, to 1.8 - 2.54 m long including petiole; sheath pale green to yellowish green, drying mid brown, usually with very sparse indument, sometimes with abundant grey indument between and on spines; spines persistent, very dense and of various sizes, orientation and form, most abundant spines 2 - 8 x 1 - 3 mm, horizontal, narrow triangular, laminar or papery, interspersed with much longer usually downward pointing golden or orange spines 30 - 40 x 1.8 - 2.3 mm and very large strictly downward-pointing spines 62 - 110 x 3 - 8 mm inserted just below the knee; knee very conspicuous, grossly swollen, 53 - 78 x 28 - 45 mm, yellowish green, usually unarmed, or very sparsely armed (in Poudyal et al. 92 rather densely armed as the sheath); ocrea 2.5 - 13 x 4 - 6 cm, entire at first, with a shallow cleft next to the petiole, soon tattering and usually disintegrating into a mass of fine pale fibres, sometimes the margins remain unsplit, the abaxial surface of the whole ocrea rather densely armed with slender spines to 5 mm, or unarmed; flagellum present, to 6- 8 m long; petiole 20 - 40 cm long, 13 - 23 mm wide, 7 - 11 mm thick at the base, adaxially flattened or shallowly channelled, abaxially rounded, with sparse to dense grey indument, and with scattered, rigid, persistent spines to 7 mm long along the margins and adaxial face, usually absent from a broad mid-band abaxially but sometimes with a row of broader triangular spines along the mid line; rachis to 214 cm long, arcuate, armed with recurved hooks abaxially, glabrous or with sparse grey indument; leaflets 53 - 65 on each side of rachis, regularly arranged, lanceolate, longest leaflet near the middle of the leaf 28 - 56 x 1.3 - 3.2 cm, apical leaflets 9 - 15 x 0.5 - 1.0 cm, apical leaflet pair united to 1/10 - 1/2 of their length, leaflets armed with long pale, darker based bristles to 10 mm long along 3 veins adaxially and with slightly shorter bristles along mid-vein abaxially, leaflets lacking indument, transverse veinlets conspicuous. Staminate inflorescence to 4 m long including peduncle to 58 cm and flagelliform tip to 90 cm, branched to 3 orders; prophyll 60 x 2.1 cm, closely sheathing, remaining ± entire with a triangular tip, with sparse grey indument and armed along margins with sparse slender spines to 25 mm long; peduncular bracts absent; rachis bracts similar to prophyll but shorter, generally unarmed and with sparse indument; primary branches up to 6 in number, to at least 60 cm long, c. 30 - 50 cm apart, with numerous rachillae; rachillae 5 - 11 x 0.2 cm; rachilla bracts 2 x 0.8 mm, distichously arranged, with patchy brown indument, unarmed; floral bracteole 0.5 x 0.5 mm, triangular, unarmed, with patchy brown indument. Staminate flowers 3 x 1 mm, known only as dry, old flowers. Pistillate inflorescence, similar to staminate inflorescence, to 4.4 m long including peduncle to 45 cm and flagelliform tip to 75 cm, branched to 2 orders; prophyll 45 x 1.4 cm, closely sheathing, remaining entire, with a triangular tip, with sparse grey indument; peduncular bracts absent, rachis bracts similar to prophyll but smaller, closely sheathing, mostly unarmed; primary branches 6 - 9, to 75 cm long, 15 - 30 cm apart, with up to 22 rachillae, subtending bracts unarmed or with few scattered short triangular spines; young rachillae 3 - 13 x 0.2 cm, rachillae in fruit 15 - 26 x 0.3 - 0.5 cm; rachilla bracts 20 - 24, 5 x 4 mm, distichous, unarmed, with sparse grey indument and dark irregular-margined scales; proximal floral bracteole 1 x 1 mm, distal floral bracteole 1 x 1 mm, scar from sterile staminate c. 1 mm diam. Pistillate flowers borne in pairs together with a sterile staminate flower to form a triad of flowers; early pistillate buds c. 2 x 1.5 mm; calyx to 3.5 mm, tubular in basal 2 mm, with triangular lobes; petals c. 2 x 1.5 mm; perianths enlarging to c. 5 mm long, splitting and becoming explanate in fruit. Sterile staminate flowers 2 x 1.5 mm in bud, similar to staminate flower. Fruit ovoid, 11.5 - 18 x 7.5 - 10 mm including beak 1.5 - 2 x 1.5 - 2 mm, with 15 - 18 vertical rows of pale yellowish to dull mid brown, channelled scales with dark or pale margins and dark tips. Seed 8 - 10 x 5.5 - 8 x 4.5 - 7 mm, ellipsoid, rather deeply scalloped and pitted, with a shallow to deep chalazal pit; endosperm homogeneous; embryo basal.
    Conservation
    Least concern.
    Vernacular
    pokou (Gulf), hurumau (Kerema), kema (Yamur)

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    New Guinea

    Calamus fertilis Becc. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2003 Heatubun, C. [385], Indonesia K000030689
    Jan 29, 2002 Dransfield, J. [JD7669], Indonesia K000030005
    Jan 29, 2002 Baker, W.J. [648], Papua New Guinea K000030004
    Jan 29, 2002 Baker, W.J. [1125], Papua New Guinea K000114162
    Jan 29, 2002 Baker, W.J. [1126], Papua New Guinea K000114163
    Jan 29, 2002 Maturbongs, R.A. [RAM673], Indonesia K000114362
    Jan 29, 2002 Zieck, J.F.U. [NGF36543], Papua New Guinea K000030574
    Jan 29, 2002 Zieck, J.F.U. [NGF36527], Papua New Guinea K000030014
    Jan 29, 2002 Poudyal [83], Papua New Guinea K000030009
    Jan 29, 2002 Poudyal [85], Papua New Guinea K000030007
    Jan 29, 2002 Poudyal [92], Papua New Guinea K000030008
    Jan 29, 2002 Mente [23], Papua New Guinea K000030006
    Jan 29, 2002 Mente [21], Papua New Guinea K000030013
    Jan 29, 2002 Mente [27], Papua New Guinea K000030011
    Jan 29, 2002 Mente [12], Papua New Guinea K000030012
    Dec 14, 1998 Carr, C.E. [16298], Papua New Guinea K000030010

    First published in Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 11(1): 492 (1908)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    • J. Dransfield & W.J. Baker, An Account of the Papuasian Species of Calamus (Arecaceae) with Paired Fruit. 2003

    Sources

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
    Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0