1. Family: Arecaceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Genus: Calamus L.
      1. Calamus helferianus Kurz

        This species is accepted, and its native range is S. Myanmar to Peninsula Malaysia.

    [PW]
    General Description
    Possibly a slender climber; leaves ecirrate; rachis acutely bifaced on upper side, aculeate below; leaflets in alternate groups of 2 - 5 leaflets on each side of the rachis, linear-lanceolate, 20 - 30 cm long, 13-15 mm broad at middle, tapering, attenuate at apices, 5-nerved; midnerve bristly above, smooth below. Male and female inflorescences slender; primary bracts tubular, very closely sheathing; rachillae non-drooping; male flowers oblong, 4 mm long, 1-2 mm apart; female flowers conical, 4 mm long, borne on distinct basal cushion; calyx urceolate; fruit unknown.
    Distribution
    NDIA (Andaman Island), BURMA.
    Biology
    Its habitat in Andaman Island is unknown.
    [PW]
    Distribution
    Perak, Selangor, Pahang, Trengganu, Kelantan. Endemic.
    General Description
    Slender clustering montane rattan varying from stemless to 10 m tall. Stem without sheaths varying from 3 mm to 7 mm in diameter, with internodes to 15 cm, usually much shorter; stem with sheaths from Jun-15 mm in diameter. Sheaths generally dull green armed with horizontal or slightly erect triangular black, yellowish-based spines to 3 cm long, though often much less, and abundant grey-brown indumentum between spines. Knee present in climbing forms. Ocrea inconspicuous. Flagellum absent. Leaf ecirrate in stemless forms, cirrate in climbing forms with petiole very short to about 25 cm in climbing forms to about 100 cm, in stemless forms sparsely armed with spines like those on the leaf sheath; leaflets very variable in size and shape, but always arranged in groups of 02-May on either side of the rachis, generally dark green with paler bases, from Aug-40 cm long by 5 mm - 2.5 cm wide, variously bristly. Inflorescences male and female superficially similar from 15-100 cm long with partial inflorescences varying greatly in size and length. Mature fruit generally oblong to ovate to about 8 mm long by 6 mm wide covered in dull brown, grey edged or yellowish scales in up to 15 vertical rows. Seed oblong, sometimes somewhat flattened. Endosperm homogeneous. Seedling leaf with A-6 leaflets.
    Vernacular
    rotan keraigunung

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Malaya, Myanmar, Thailand

    Calamus helferianus Kurz appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Gamble [s.n.] K000462090
    Gamble [s.n.] K000462091
    Parker, R.N. [2316], Burma K000462312
    Wight [2761], India K000462087
    Wight [2761], India K000462088
    Helfer [6393], Burma K000462313
    Helfer [6389], India K000462085
    Helfer [6389], India K000462086
    Burkill, I.H. [5683], Peninsular Malaysia Calamus viridispinus K000207765 isotype
    Wray, L. [3923], Peninsular Malaysia Calamus viridispinus K000207764 holotype

    First published in J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 43: 213 (1874)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Not accepted by

    • Henderson, A. (2009). Palms of Southern Asia: 1-197. Princeton university press, Princeton and Oxford. [Cited as Calamus oxleyanus var. oxleyanus.]

    Literature

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    • S.K. Basu, Rattans (canes) in India. A Monographic Revision. 1992

    Sources

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
    Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0