1. Family: Arecaceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Genus: Calamus L.
      1. Calamus rhabdocladus Burret

        This species is accepted, and its native range is S. China to E. Indo-China.

    [PW]
    Distribution
    China (South Yunnan and South-east China), Laos (North and Central) and Vietnam (Tonkin, North and South Annam).
    General Description
    Moderate, clustering, high climbing, flagellate rattan reaching at least 25 m long. Stem without sheath up to 25 mm diam., with sheath 40 - 60 mm. Leaf ecirrate, total length 1 - 2 m, sheath green or yellowish in life with reddish-brown indumentum which dries dark and extends onto the rachis, sheath bearing numerous laminar, elastic, glossy black spines of widely varying sizes up to 4 cm, mostly arranged on raised crests in long, parallel rows, often deflexed, the spines of the sheath mouth longer, up to 10 cm, swept back across the stem and forming a comb, ocrea forming a brittle, well armed band about 1 cm tall, at first continuous across the base of the petiole, soon disintegrating; knee present but indistinct, petiole on upper leaves 20 - 40 cm long, flat or slightly keeled adaxially, rounded abaxially, heavily armed all around with combs of spines similar to those on the sheath, rachis becoming acutely bifaced distally, armed abaxially with small, dark claws; leaflets lanceolate, 30 - 49 x 1.8 - 2 cm, up to 60 per side in upper leaves, interruptedly pinnate, especially towards the base of the rachis, or wholly regularly arranged, all in one plane, parallel, concolorous, adaxially three costae prominent, the two lateral ones and sometimes the central one bearing many small appressed black bristles, abaxially only one costa sub-prominent, without bristles or with two of the non-central costae bristly, leaflet margins bristly, transverse veinlets quite sparse, sinuous, often interrupted. Male inflorescences flagelliform, branched to 3 orders, up to 4 m long excluding the terminal flagellum, often drying cinnamon- red, with pendulous branches; prophyll very densely armed with acicular and laminar black spines up to 2 cm long, primary bracts not lacerate although splitting a little on older inflorescences, tightly sheathing and clawed in their proximal parts, very slightly inflated and densely armed with acicular spines near the bract mouth, mouth with a short, acute limb, partial inflorescences inserted or exserted from the primary bracts, up to 70 cm long; secondary bracts and tertiary bracts unarmed, entire, with short acute limbs; rachillae inserted in the tertiary bracts, tiny, delicate, up to 1.2 (rarely to 2) cm long with a very slender axis, strongly recurved well before anthesis, along each side bearing 3 - 5 flowers spaced less than 2 mm apart, the rachilla bracts very shortly, broadly funnel shaped, 2.5 mm wide at the mouth, involucre inserted in the bract. Flowers not seen at anthesis, those seen 3 mm long, the calyx over 2/3 this length and toothed to about 1/4 of its length. Female inflorescences similar to the male except where noted, up to 4 m long excluding terminal flagellum, branched to two orders, partial inflorescences up to 80 cm long, rachillae up to 8 or even 15 cm long, inserted in the secondary bracts, pendulous, along each side bearing around 16- 22 flowers spaced 4.5 - 6 mm apart, the rachilla bracts funnel shaped, with a small acute limb, 3- 4 mm wide at the mouth, involucrophores inserted in the bracts, involucres and the much smaller cups of the neuter flowers deeply cupular, their shared margin raised in a point well beyond the bract mouth. Female flowers not seen. Fruiting perianth explanate. Fruit ovoid, 14 x 8 mm including a short abrupt beak, the epicarp scales in 12 - 15 vertical rows, when dry yellow with a reddish-brown margin of varying width, slightly channelled. Seed 8 x 4 mm, elongate-ovoid, the surface deeply pitted, the interior thus slightly ruminate.
    Vernacular
    wai wan, wai bounwan, wai bounyong (Lao Loum), blong salay (Khamu).
    Conservation
    Probably of little concern.
    Biology
    Evergreen forest at 500 - 800 m (Laos), 1000 - 1600 m (Vietnam). Also survives in scrub.
    [PW]
    Use
    The cane is of at least moderate quality for handicrafts and trade. The shoot is edible and, unusually for an Indochinese rattan, sweet.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    China South-Central, China Southeast, Hainan, Laos, Vietnam

    Calamus rhabdocladus Burret appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Apr 20, 2006 Ban, N.K. [PA136], Vietnam K000208958
    Jul 1, 2000 Averyanov, L. [VH3620], Vietnam K000462504
    Jul 1, 2000 Kudrjavceva, E. [612], Vietnam K000462516
    Jul 1, 2000 Kudrjavceva, E. [633], Vietnam K000462519
    Jan 1, 2000 Poilane, E. [22069], Eastern Asia K000697943 isotype
    Mar 10, 1978 Tso, C.L. [20334], China K000521760
    Henderson, A. [3264], Vietnam K000526549
    Henderson, A. [3272], Vietnam K000526552
    Khamphone [371], Laos K000114568
    Oulathong [204], Laos K000114542
    Lau, S. Y. [20282], China K000521761
    Chen, S.H. [18530], China K000521762

    First published in Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 10: 884 (1930)

    Accepted by

    • Peters, C.M. & Henderson, A. (2014). Systematics, ecology and management of Rattans in Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam: 1-222. Agricultural Printing House.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2010). Flora of China 23: 1-515. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Henderson, A. (2009). Palms of Southern Asia: 1-197. Princeton university press, Princeton and Oxford.
    • Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    • T. Evans & K. Sengdala & B. Thammavong & O.V. Viengkham & J. Dransfield, A Synopsis of the Rattans (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) of Laos and Neighbouring Parts of Indochina. 2002

    Sources

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
    Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0