1. Family: Arecaceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Genus: Calamus L.
      1. Calamus tetradactylus Hance

        This species is accepted, and its native range is SE. China to Indo-China.

    [PW]
    Conservation
    This widespread, common and widely cultivated species is unlikely to be under serious threat. If smaller localised taxa are recognised some of these may be under greater threat.
    Vernacular
    wai hangnou, wai hangnounyai, wai savang (Lao Loum), kaceck doikanair (Phong), re peu (Alak), wai krit (Thailand).
    Distribution
    DISTRIBUTION. China (Yunnan, exact location unclear, and South-east China), Thailand (East and South-east), Laos (Central and South), Vietnam (all except North Annam) and Cambodia.
    Biology
    Evergreen forest and scrub at 100 - 1000 m.
    [PW]
    Distribution
    Indochinese endemic. Thailand (North-east) and Laos (Central).
    Conservation
    Of high conservation concern. It is currently known from a limited range, within which it is the preferred small-diameter cane for harvesting. Regeneration is likely to be poor since the plant is single-stemmed. Although still abundant in some areas, declines are apparent and over-harvesting is a strong possibility.
    Biology
    Evergreen forest at 200 - 600 m in Laos and at 200 m in Thailand.
    Vernacular
    wai thork, wai yong, wai hakyong, wai savang, wai noi (Laos), wai thork (Thailand).
    [PW]
    Use
    The cane is of high quality and is probably important in trade, especially in Vietnam. Vu Van Dung & Le Huy Guang (1996) report that a species to which they give this name has been cultivated by smallholders around Hanoi for over 100 years and the practice is now spreading. This appears to be one of the oldest rattan cultivation systems known.
    [PW]
    Use
    The cane is of high quality and is widely traded. Shoot edible but small.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Cambodia, China Southeast, Hainan, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam

    Calamus tetradactylus Hance appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Oct 13, 2008 Barfod, A. [726], Thailand K000526364
    Jul 1, 2000 Averyanov, L. [VH2170], Vietnam K000462497
    Jan 1, 2000 Clemens, J. [3100], Vietnam K000525693
    Jan 1, 2000 Kerr, A.F.G. [17824], Thailand K000525696
    Jul 29, 1999 Khamphone [399], Laos K000114561
    Feb 1, 1999 Oulathong [207], Laos K000114547
    Feb 1, 1999 Oulathong [208], Laos K000114548
    Feb 1, 1999 Oulathong [209], Laos K000114549
    Aug 26, 1998 Kerr, A.F.G. [8534], Thailand K000525695
    Mar 13, 1996 Frohlich, J. [JF HK4], China K000114586
    Mar 13, 1996 Frohlich, J. [JF HK2], China K000114587
    Jun 11, 1975 Shiu Ying Hu [8435], China K000521763
    McClure, F.A. [20165], China K000521771
    McClure, F.A. [9793], China K000522408
    Henry, A. [8213], China K000522406
    Tsang, W.T. [654], China K000521772
    Tsang, W.T. [15500], China K000521767
    Tsang, W.T. [15500], China K000521768
    Poilane [23814], Vietnam K000525694
    Hance [18979], Hong Kong K000522407 holotype
    Lau, S.K. [200], China K000521769
    Lau, S.K. [200], China K000521770
    Lei, C.I. [220], China K000521773
    Fung, H. [20448], China K000521766
    Shiu Ying Hu [9639], China K000521764
    Shiu Ying Hu [9639], China K000521765
    Taam, Y.W. [1558], China K000521775
    Taam, Y.W. [1910], China K000521774
    Henderson, A. [3273], Vietnam Calamus crispus K000526553
    Feb 1, 2001 Khamphone [317], Laos Calamus solitarius K000114577
    Feb 1, 2001 Khamphone [316], Laos Calamus solitarius K000114578
    Feb 1, 2001 Khamphone [313], Laos Calamus solitarius K000114580
    Khamphone [312], Laos Calamus solitarius K000114581

    First published in J. Bot. 13: 289 (1875)

    Accepted by

    • Peters, C.M. & Henderson, A. (2014). Systematics, ecology and management of Rattans in Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam: 1-222. Agricultural Printing House.
    • Barfod, A.S. & Dransfield, J. (2013). Flora of Thailand 11(3): 323-498. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2010). Flora of China 23: 1-515. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Henderson, A. (2009). Palms of Southern Asia: 1-197. Princeton university press, Princeton and Oxford.
    • Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    • T. Evans & K. Sengdala & B. Thammavong & O.V. Viengkham & J. Dransfield, A Synopsis of the Rattans (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) of Laos and Neighbouring Parts of Indochina. 2002
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2010). Flora of China 23: 1-515. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.

    Sources

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
    Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0