1. Family: Arecaceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Genus: Calamus L.
      1. Calamus thwaitesii Becc.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is SW. India, Sri Lanka.

    [PW]
    Biology
    Frequent in moist forest, on slopes and high valleys of the Western Ghats.
    General Description
    A strong climber, about 10 m or more long; stem cluster forming, with leafsheath to 4.5 cm in diameter; exposed stem smooth, yellowish green with 30 - 40 cm long internodes. Leaves ecirrate, about 4 m long in full grown plants; leafsheath and petiole covered with light brown felt-like coating, armed with series of flattened, broad-based, blackish spines jointed at their base; ocrea absent; rachis channelled above, armed with groups of flattened straight spines on upper side and recurved claws with black tips, most conspicuous on lower side; leaflets elongate, ensiform, basal leaflets in groups of 2 - 3 leaflets on each side of the rachis; middle and upper leaflets to 80 cm long, to 5 cm wide at middle, more or less regular and equidistant on rachis with conspicuous black bristles on margins; terminal leaflets smallest, jointed at their base. Male and female inflorescences flagelliform, simply branched; partial inflorescences 60-80 cm long, with 40 - 50 cm space in between the partial inflorescences; axial portion of the partial inflorescences armed with whorls of black tipped claws; primary bract funnel-shaped, lacerate at mouth; secondary bracts on their exposed parts covered with small spines with tuberculateba.se. Male rachillae yellow, flattened, to IS cm long, inserted within the mouth of the respective basal bracts; male flowers distichous, 20-30 in number, narrowly oblong, 8-10 mm x 3 mm, obliquely trigonous at base; calyx campanulate, divided half way into triangular lobes; female rachillae to 30 cm long; bracteoles funnel-shaped, truncate, prolonged on one side into triangular points; involucrophorum cupular; involucre regularly cupular; female flowers ovate,? - 8 mm long; fruiting perianth non-stalked; base of the calyx hardens to form a cushion. Fruits 2.2 x 2.5 cm, ellipsoid to ovoid, suddenly contracted into a solid beak, fruit scales brownish along the margin, broadly channelled at middle, arranged in 12 longitudinal series; seed one, suborbicular, 12 mm x 11 mm; endosperm homogeneous.
    Distribution
    INDIA (Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Goa, Maharastra, Karnataka), SRI LANKA.
    [PW]
    Use
    Due to the highly glossy surface and strength, the cane is used for making good quality furniture; one of the most exploited rattans of South India.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    India, Sri Lanka

    Calamus thwaitesii Becc. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Thwaites, G.H.K [s.n.], Sri Lanka K000697989 isotype
    Thwaites, G.H.K [s.n.], Sri Lanka K000697990 isotype

    First published in J.D.Hooker, Fl. Brit. India 6: 441 (1892)

    Accepted by

    • Henderson, A. (2009). Palms of Southern Asia: 1-197. Princeton university press, Princeton and Oxford.
    • Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    • S.K. Basu, Rattans (canes) in India. A Monographic Revision. 1992

    Sources

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
    Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0