1. Family: Arecaceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Genus: Calamus L.
      1. Calamus vitiensis Warb. ex Becc.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Maluku to Fiji.

    [PW]
    General Description
    Slender to robust, solitary rattan climbing to 15 m. Stem with sheaths 10 – 50 mm diam., without sheaths 7 – 22 mm diam.; internodes 12.5 – 33 cm. Leaf cirrate, to c. 3 m long including cirrus and petiole (where present); sheath dark green, with caducous indumentum of brown to light grey, fibrous scales, spines absent to numerous, 1 – 40 × 0.3 – 2.5 mm, yellow-green to brown, planar, triangular, longer spines flexible, spine bases sometimes slightly swollen adaxially, spines usually of rather uniform size, sometimes of various sizes, spine surface with indumentum as on sheath, usually solitary or occasionally also with very few partial whorls of up to 6, spine impressions on sheath sometimes conspicuous, sheath mouth unarmed or lightly armed; knee 17 – 60 mm long, 10 – 28 mm wide, unarmed or lightly armed with short spines, colour and indumentum as on sheath; ocrea 2 – 4.5 mm, forming a low, woody, brown, unarmed or lightly armed, persistent collar, base of ocrea extending along petiole to an acute angle; flagellum absent; petiole 0 – 45 mm, 7 – 19 mm wide and 4.5 – 9 mm thick at base, channelled or flat adaxially, rounded abaxially, indumentum as on sheath, unarmed or with few to many short triangular spines; rachis 1.2 – 2 m, unarmed or with spines and indumentum as petiole near base, with grapnel spines on abaxial surface of distal portion of rachis; leaflets 10 – 22 each side of rachis, often drying dark green, arranged regularly or in widely spaced pairs, the leaflets in each pair sometimes divergent, broadly lanceolate, cucullate, longest leaflets near middle of leaf, 18 – 43 × 3.5 – 7 cm, apical leaflets 7 – 23.5 × 0.9 – 1.5 cm, distal leaflets widely spaced, basal leaflets small, leaflet surfaces unarmed or with very few bristles 0.8 – 2.2 mm on adaxial surface of mid-rib and other major veins, leaflet margins unarmed or with very few bristles 0.2 – 5 mm, most numerous near apex, with indumentum as on sheath sometimes scattered throughout adaxial surface of leaflet, transverse veinlets inconspicuous; cirrus 0.6 – 2 m, cirrus grapnel spines arranged regularly. Staminate inflorescence limited material seen, similar to pistillate inflorescence, but branched to 3 orders, bracts on primary and secondary branches funnel-shaped. Staminate flowers not seen. Pistillate inflorescence, up to c. 2 m long including 26 – 33 cm peduncle and sterile tip to c. 50 cm, branched to 2 orders; prophyll 14 – 31 × 1 – 1.2 cm, strictly tubular, with 2 keels, prophyll mouth entire, with acute, triangular limb to one side, sometimes subtending primary branch, indumentum as on sheath, unarmed or lightly armed with short spines; peduncular bracts absent or rarely 1, rachis bracts and peduncular bract (if present) 5.7 – 25 × 0.3 – 1.5 cm, similar to prophyll, unarmed to lightly armed as prophyll; primary branches 6 – 12, to 28 cm long, 8 – 28 cm apart, straight to recurving, with up to 40 rachillae, bracts on primary branch funnel-shaped; rachillae 0.9 – 9.5 × 0.1 – 0.2 cm, sublinear to arcuate; rachilla bracts 1 – 2 × 1.5 – 2 mm, distichous to subdistichous, often rather widely spaced; flower clusters sometimes distinctly stalked, stalk 0.8 – 1.5 mm long, proximal floral bracteole 1 – 1.2 × 1.3 – 1.5 mm, distal floral bracteole 1.2 – 1.5 × 1.2 – 1.5 mm, glabrous, scar from sterile staminate flower c. 0.2 mm diam. Pistillate flowers 2.5 – 3.5 × 1.7 – 2 mm at anthesis; calyx 1.7 – 2 mm diam., tubular in basal 1.7 – 2.2 mm, with 3 lobes to 0.4 – 0.8 × 0.7 – 1 mm, glabrous; corolla 2 – 2.7 × 1.5 – 1.7 mm, tubular in basal 1.1 – 1.8 mm, with 3 lobes 0.5 – 0.9 × 0.7 – 1.2 mm, glabrous; staminodes 6, c. 0.6 – 0.8 mm long, staminodal ring c. 0.8 – 1 mm high; ovary c. 1 – 1.5 × 1 – 1.4 mm, globose, style c. 0.5 – 0.8 mm long, stigmas 0.7 – 0.8 mm long. Sterile staminate flowers not seen. Fruit globose, 10 – 11 × 8.5 – 9.5 mm including beak 1 – 1.5 mm, with 18 – 19 longitudinal rows of white, shallowly channelled scales with entire, but uneven margins, margins of scale apex sometimes brown. Seed (sarcotesta removed) 6.8 – 8 × 6.5 – 7 × 5.2 – 6.5 mm, globose, with a deep, narrow pit on one side, the surface covered with numerous shallow pits and irregular channels; endosperm homogeneous; embryo basal.
    Conservation
    Least concern.
    Vernacular
    FIJI: Ngganuya (Taveuni) NEW GUINEA: Wusiu (Manus). SOLOMON ISLANDS: Kalitao, Kalitau (Kwara�ae). VANUATU: Gawolo (Vanua Lava)
    Biology
    Various types of primary and secondary forest vegetations, 60 - 750 m.
    Distribution
    Known from scattered records in Papua New Guinea (Manus, Morobe, Madang, Southern Highlands), Australia (Queensland, as far south as Dunk Island), the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and Fiji; the most easterly occurring species in the genus Calamus
    [PW]
    Use
    General cordage, cane for tying houses, for making swings for children, sap from cut stem used for curing eye ailments.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Bismarck Archipelago, Fiji, Maluku, New Guinea, Queensland, Solomon Is., Vanuatu

    Calamus vitiensis Warb. ex Becc. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Dec 14, 2006 Clunies-Ross [CCR21], Vanuatu K000462442
    Jun 16, 2003 Baker, W.J. [849], Indonesia K000525505
    Jun 16, 2003 Maturbongs, R.A. [569], Indonesia K000525504
    Jun 16, 2003 Maturbongs, R.A. [568], Indonesia K000525506
    Apr 18, 2002 Sands, M.J.S. [2744], Papua New Guinea K000030522
    Apr 18, 2002 Smith, A.C. [8132], Fiji K000030528
    Apr 18, 2002 Smith, A.C. [8132], Fiji K000525483
    Apr 18, 2002 Moore, H.E. [9357], Fiji K000030511
    Apr 18, 2002 Green, P.S. [RSNH1076], Vanuatu K000030529
    Apr 18, 2002 Green, P.S. [RSNH1076], Vanuatu K000525484
    Apr 18, 2002 Green, P.S. [RSNH1076], Vanuatu K000525485
    Apr 18, 2002 Green, P.S. [RSNH1076], Vanuatu K000525486
    Apr 18, 2002 Green, P.S. [RSNH1076], Vanuatu K000525487
    Apr 18, 2002 Whitmore, T. [BSIP793], Solomon Is. K000030519
    Apr 18, 2002 Whitmore, T. [BSIP793], Solomon Is. K000525482
    Apr 18, 2002 Johns, R.J. [B], Papua New Guinea K000030531
    Apr 18, 2002 Johns, R.J. [C], Papua New Guinea K000030532
    Apr 18, 2002 Johns, R.J. [D], Papua New Guinea K000030540
    Apr 18, 2002 Wheatley, J. [JWV436], Vanuatu K000030527
    Apr 18, 2002 Baker, W.J. [625], Papua New Guinea K000030521
    Apr 18, 2002 Baker, W.J. [574], Papua New Guinea K000030525
    Apr 18, 2002 Baker, W.J. [596], Papua New Guinea K000030526
    Apr 18, 2002 Baker, W.J. [568], Papua New Guinea K000030541
    Apr 18, 2002 Wee-Lek, C. [RSNH118], Vanuatu K000030195 isotype
    Apr 18, 2002 Wee-Lek, C. [RSNH118], Vanuatu K000525488 isotype
    Apr 18, 2002 Wee-Lek, C. [RSNH118], Vanuatu K000525490 isotype
    Apr 18, 2002 Wee-Lek, C. [RSNH118], Vanuatu K000525489 isotype
    Apr 18, 2002 Taurereko [207], Papua New Guinea K000030523
    Apr 18, 2002 Taurereko [205], Papua New Guinea K000030539
    Apr 18, 2002 Patma [8], Papua New Guinea K000030514
    Apr 18, 2002 Patma [7], Papua New Guinea K000030509
    Apr 18, 2002 Patma [C], Papua New Guinea K000030518
    Apr 18, 2002 Patma [16], Papua New Guinea K000030517
    Apr 18, 2002 Patma [4], Papua New Guinea K000030510
    Apr 18, 2002 Patma [s.n.], Papua New Guinea K000030516
    Apr 18, 2002 Moriarty, V. [9208], Australia K000030513
    Apr 18, 2002 Moriarty, V. [s.n.], Australia K000030520
    Apr 18, 2002 Moriarty, V. [9208], Australia K000525502
    Apr 18, 2002 Moriarty, V. [9208], Australia K000525503
    Wattling, D. [2K 1480], Fiji 70826.000
    Tuiwawa, M. [2K 1461], Fiji 70827.000
    Patma [1], Papua New Guinea K000030515

    First published in Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 11(1): 350 (1908)

    Accepted by

    • Dowe, J.L. (2010). Australian palms: biogeography, ecology and systematics: 1-290. CSIRO Publishing.
    • Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Watling, D. (2005). Palms of the Fiji Islands: 1-191. Environmental Consultants (Fiji) Ltd., Suva.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    • W.J. Baker & R.P Bayton & J. Dransfield & R.A Maturbongs, A revision of the Calamus aruensis (Arecaceae) complex in New Guinea and the Pacific. 2003

    Sources

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
    Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0